In 1994 Manfred Moosauer and Traudl Bachmaier discovered in the vicinity of Bernstorf, Germany, an urban settlement constructed round 1350 BC. 1998 they found high purity gold. Ancient technology for purifying gold was reputedly known in Egypt only. Two years later they made another great find. One yellowish and one reddish ambers with inscriptions. Thus, this find established a compelling link between Ancient Egypt and the source of ambers along the Baltic Coast. Gold and ambers are among the most important archaeological discoveries in Bavaria up to the end of the 20th century. The research revealed inscriptions is a remarkable mixture of Linear B and Egyptian hieroglyphs.

On the yellow amber there is probably the name of the settlement - TIN VAPA - meaning Great Castle or Old Castle followed by a fourth sign not known neither among Linear B nor Egyptian hieroglyphs. Piece of gold named Diadem has the same shape like this fourth sign. Therefore, we understand this sign as an icon of the Diadem both holding the same heraldry or mythological meaning. Remarkable reality is that the town Pylos (western Peloponnes, Greece) the native Greeks nickname „Tinva" which might be a loan-word from Proto-Slavic because “tin” (castle or market) is an old Proto-Slavonic well documented word. Less probable is opposite direction reading, left to rigth, which gives „PA-NVA-TI". Panvati was one of argonauts on the way to Kolchida. A similar pronunciation „PA-RVA-TI" in Russian and Belorussian means „ tear to pieces".

Red amber decipherment gave the text „foreign palace daughter“. The first three characters from left to right give the reading DO-č-KA (in Russian “daughter"). Commas between Linear B characters should be read as consonants (-č-) because syllabic alphabets do not have graphems for single phonems. There is another possible reading DO-s-KA meaning „board“ in several Slavonic languages: in Russian (доска), Belorussian (дошка), Slovakian (doska). This meaning is purposeful, as well, because among the golden pieces there is one, which could be understood as writing tool stylus and „doska“ could mean a reference to a wax tablet. The last two characters of the inscription have no equivalent in Linear B. They are probably Egyptian hieroglyphs known as „throwing stick“ (meaning foreign person or country or enemy) and „map of house“ with a determinant, which gives „map of house“ the meaning of an ideogram, i.e. the sign stands for whole notion or concept. In this case palace, house or market.

Proto-Slavonic influence on Egyptian hieroglyphs has been examplified: „map of house“ has phonogram „pr“ which in Proto-Slavonian means „palěh ris“ (ground plan, foundation). Further Egyptian phonograms have been submited.


In 1994 Manfred Moosauer and Traudl Bachmaier discovered in the vicinity of Bernstorf (nearer buildings next to the line of trees on the left side of the picture), Germany, an urban settlement constructed round 1350 BC. Bernstorf is about 40 km north of Munich.



Settlement reconstruction - view from north. Based on archeological research, today we know the settlement was about 1/3 bigger southwards. The findings locality is at the eastern wall (left). 



1998 Moosauer and Bachmaier found various pieces of thin gold plates. On the right side there is a piece similar to a stylus. Styluses were used for writing on wax tablets. For example, in the right picture we see a stylus from Novgorod (Russia). The stylus shaped piece of gold in the middle picture served perhaps for design coating and as a symbol of a scriber. On the figurine left we see that Moosauer and Bachmaier once conceived the pieces of gold as jewelry giving the stylus shaped gold meaning of a pin.

Amber pieces

Two years later they made another great find. One yellowish and one reddish ambers with inscriptions in Linear B. In connection with Egyptian technology for purifying gold, this find established a compelling link between Ancient Egypt and the source of ambers along the Baltic Coast.


Amber sources and transport ways

(J. Richter: Der Brenner Codex, p. 31)

The spread of the Veneti and the name giving is in Internet beeing documented and discussed. A correlation between Slavs (once called Venets and many other names) and Bernstein can be determined, if we superpose the Amber sources map with the distribution of Veneti map bellow.

Distribution of the Venets (Proto-Slavs) around 1000 BC

At the time of burn-out of Bernstorf settlement large areas of Europe have been populated with various Veneti tribes. Themselves they called Wana‘s. Documented on a spindle whorl found at Hlinsko (Czech Republic, Moravia) and tablets from Pylos (PY Ta 711) and Mycenae (MY V 659). 

Todays approximate spheres of notions jantar, čilibar, ambra and Bernstein:

Orange– jantar (Croatian  Czech Polish);jantár (Slovakian); янтaрь(Russian); jantarja (Slovenian); јантар[jantar](Serbian); dzintars (Lettish); gintaras (Lithuanian);

Violet - Ћилибар[čilibar] (Serbian);  chihlimbar [čihlimbar] (Romanian); qelibar [čelibar] (Albanian), кеxлибáр(Bulgarian); кεχριμπάρι [kechribári] (Grecian)

Red – âmbar (Portugese); ambra (Italian); ambre (French); ambar (Spanish); amber (English);

Blue  – Bernstein (German); bursztyn (Polish); бурштин orсмола(Ukrainian); бурштын(Belorussian); borostyánkő (Hungarian); bärnsten (Swedish); barnsteen (Netherlandian)

Other notions: meripihka = sea resin (Finnish); merevaik = sea resin (Estonian);
rav (Norvegian, Danish); [kachlimen] Arabian; kehribar (Turkish).








The yellowish amber holds an inscription consisting of three Linear B signs. Reading from right to left gives TINVAPA.
"TIN" is similar to an old Czech notion „týn" meaning „castle-fortress" or „market". „-pa“ is probably a Slavonic suffix meaning of something beeing old, in todays Czech "pra-". A hypothetical translation might be "Old Castle"

Some remarkable facts:
The town Pylos (western Peloponnes) the native Greeks nickname „Tinva" (message from Moosauer) which might be a loan-word from Proto-Slavic. Why? In Proto-Slavonic „tin“ ment {shadow | protection | dark}, in Serbo-Croatian „tin“ means {barrier | separating piece}. Today, we know the language coded in Linear B around 1300 BC at Crete and at todays Greece was Serbo-Croatian with some words know in present day Macedonian. The word TIN was also found on Egyptian mummy in Zagreb, part VIII, line 21, sixth    to eighth sign, reading right to left:

Transcription from right to left:  ě o riěTÍN mí -  ti urišč  - avilšč chím  - hě trn
English translation: be in writing DARK of mine -  thee ban me -  I aging perish -  I know the thorn (meaning „cause“).
„be in writing DARK of mine“ means writing is an expression of mine without emotions


•TIN is also a part of the inscription on the Chimaera from Arezzo:

Transcription „Tinšč čivil“ (reading right to left).

The meaning is „castle ghost“.



• Other examples are
A – TÍNIJA in Proto-Slavonic „at the market“, or The Market Place, today´s Athens.
Later on, in „týn“ area market place or fortress were built. Examples: Týn Market in Prague, cities like Týn nad Bečvou, Týn nad Vltavou, Týniště nad Orlicí or the castle Karlův Týn etc.


From left to right the linear B signs give the reading „PANVATI”. Panvati was the name of a Greek argonaut and this interpretation suggested Moosauer and Bachmaier. Found in a writing of Apollonios Rhodios 300 BC (e.g. in Ichor Mykhinaika Eyphmata, Band 18, Athen, p.3, left column and others). There is a problem of a gap of 1050 years (300 BC Appolonios Rhodios – 1350 BC burn-out of Bernstorf) makes this interpretation less probable compared to TINVAPA.

The reading of the middle sign as NWA, as sugested by Ventris, is not sure.  If it would be RVA, then PARVATI might in Belorussian mean „tear to pieces", in Russian we have the same meaning differently written as „porvati“ but pronounced like „parvati“. 
In Indian mythology Parvati was daughter of god Himalaya. „Hima-laja” is a Proto-Slavonic word meaning „winter laying” (hima > sima > zima; suffix -laja we found in municipalities like Lysolaje, Visolaje, Vizálaje). In real sense in Sanskrit „parvata“ means „mountain“. In some Slavonic languages „pa-rvata“ means to tear something into pieces. The word evokes a vision of Earth teared into pieces, into a chain of hills. 


On the Phaistos Disc there is the icon nr. 04 which represents a captive, prisoner or a slave. In Serbo-Croatian "suoj" or "rob" or "rab". According the decipherment of KN As 1516 tablet the word for such a person is also "rajo" in Serbo-Croatian.


Now, if transliterate the middle sign we will get two possible interpretation as there is no Serbo-Croatian equivalent for PASUTI. Similar to PAROTI is "parotina" in Czech rýha-škrábnutí meaning stria, scrak or scratch, cut. PARATI has a Serbo-Croatian equavalent "párati"(in Czech pařit-spařovat-napařovat or pářit se meaning steam or cupulate.


Striking similarity between „Diadem“ and amber sign

There is a striking similarity between Bernstorf „Diadem“ and the sign on the yellowish amber.
The conclusion is, gold find and amber sign belong in symbolic sense together. So, if both symbolize same meaning, what is it? What do they symbolize? Let us search such a meaning by looking for similarities.


Similarity with Egyptian hieroglyph
As gold was purified in Egypt, let us examine Egyptian hieroglyphs. A similar one allegly represents „Senet board“ – a kind of game (Nr. 133E0, Y005, in The Unicode Consortium). 

At the momen there is an inconsequence because phonetic is {mn | men | mon} which is not in congruence with the name „senet“. Slavonic interpretation of „mn“ might be „мир наш“ [mir na:š] meaning „our world“, or Proto-Slavonic „měno“ meaning „sacrifice“ but other                                                      interpretations are thinkable, as well. 

Similarity with Slavonic cross
          Also called „God‘s hands“. The god spreads his hands (fingers) in all four world directions. The middle protom of the amber sign is longer         compared with other protoms or with God‘s hand. So, the amber sign might symbolize men‘s hand but many other things like Earth, the settlement or even to be predecessor of Gods hands. This depends on how much mythology we put into the amber sign. And, if it symbolizes name of the settlement, then the Linear B signs might mean the name of the settlement. 



Slavonic funeral urn

Vessel with the symbol "Hands of God" was discovered in 1936 during archaeological excavations in Białej, Poland, Lodz region, and dated to 3rd - 4th century AD (Przeworsk culture). The funeral urn disappeared during the withdrawal of the Germans in Lodz in World Word II, and today is known only by a plaster copy.
Łukasz Antosik: Popelnica ze stara swastyka.




Slavonic mythology signs
In mythology, Slavonic cross is sometimes identified either with Slavonic god Svantovít (Elbe valley Slavs), or with Perun (Ukraina).

In Moravia you may find this Slavonic cross on painted Easter Eggs with ornamental meaning only.


Slavonic mythological genesis of the world

Proto-Slavs were convinced that everything has a Beginning and an End. Human life is restricted by birth and death. None of us from our own experience knows anything about the time preceding our birth and considerations what awaits us after death is just a mumble. Before us and after us there were people. In the same way the Proto-Slavonic people were thinking about gods and their actual originator of the gods - the Proto-God (Pra-Bůh or prabůh). Him they called Svarog.
If a man's life is a Beginning and an End, then life of mankind has a Beginning and an End. The life of humanity they called Era. About our Era just Proto-God Svarog knows everything, who sleeps in the sun as a child in a transparent egg. We humans are also born from eggs that our mother wore inside. Golden sun paints a splendour like that of beautiful Easter eggs and only God can see it, the beauty is blinding a man. Svarog inside the sun sleeps and gathers strength. When our Era ends, another Era comes. The son of Svarog – Svarožic – arose from third leg, which Svarog has grown during his sleep. After Svarožic started to govern over the new Era, he invented names for directions. These directions are symbolized with four hands in the Slavonic cross.
....and so on. Only beginning of the Slavonic genesis of the world is presented here.

"Diadem“ and amber sign are incomplete findings and I have to admit I have no interpretation what the symbols could mean.


Red amber – left to right reading

Is this a bearded man or a woman with a yashmak?



Reverse of the Face side
Signs - left to right reading:
1. DO
2. comma
3. KA or HA
4. hieroglyph?
5. hieroglyph? 

DO-č-KA or DO-s-KA?


The „comma“ sign between DO and KA represents a consonant in a syllabic alphabet. So far known consonants used are:
and two of them help to give a meaning.

Reading the first three signs left to right gives four meanings: daughter, board and welcome but also the opposite – wilful waylay, hold up. DO-č-KA in Russian means daughter, in Serbocroatian either welcome or wilful waylay depending on circumstances. DO-s-KA occurs in several Slavonic languages - in Russian (доска), Belorussian (дошка), Slovakian (doska).

Egyptian hieroglyphs?

There is no equivalent for the last two signs in Linear B but the pieces of gold allow to make a connection to Egyptian hieroglyphs.
The left sign looks like a mirror inverted Egyptian hieroglyph called “throwing stick”. The right one is similar the hieroglyph „map of house“ with a determinant. A determinant tells us the sign should be considered as an ideogram, i.e. the sign stands for whole notion or concept.



Ideograms and phonogramsHieroglyphic ideograms can be interpreted by any language:

die Handfläche palm tenyér palma paume
German Eng. Hung. Ital.Spa.Rum. French
but auxiliary sound signs (phonograms), e.g. „d“ or „de“, have specific meaning of the language used by the writer:

d de delanj dlaň длан dłoń dlán
phonogram Proto-Slav. CZ Bul. Pol. SrbCh.
Antonín Horák in his book The Paradigm About The Slavs – Inverted (O Slovanech úplně jinak, 1991) presented a whole alphabet of such language specific phonograms:

Hieroglyphs „map of house“, determinant and „throwing stick“
The phonogram of „map of house“ is „pr“.
„p“ stands for „palěh“ (field) and
„r“ stands for „ris“ = {cut | drawing | plan}
In Czech (půdorys) and Slovak (pôdorys) language „pr“ has the same meaining. „půdo-“ means „ground like“ or „field like“ and -rys = ris.
so: map of house (or foundations) = půdorys
As determinant the hieroglyphic sign throwing stick gives one of the following meanings: 1. to throw
2. foreign {country | person | enemy | palace | house | castle | market}3. create (phonem kma)Notice: {}... set of values; | ... exclusive „or“

Red amber – right to left reading
The only meaningful combination of the syllabic signs and the comma was the Serbocroatian word „kanda“.
KA-n-DO ≈ SrbC. kanda = {as if | as though | perhaps | maybe}.
So, the reading might be
„{country | person | enemy | palace | house | castle | market} foreign maybe“

Red amber summarySign side holds probably the meaning „foreign country daughter“ or „foreign palace daughter“. Face side shows probably a woman with a yashmak.

Yellow amber summaryThe inscription in Linear B holds at least one folowing meaning (right to left reading):
TINVAPA or TIN VAPA meaning Greate Castle or Old Castle
PANVATI is argonaut´s name (left to right reading)
PARVATI may mean jagged mountains. Or in a transferred meaning {hard | strong | high}.
I do not know what the icon of the „Diadem“ bellow the Linear B signs symbolizes. It could be symbol of a hand, settlement, rivers, mountains, the World, a heraldry sign - the fantasy is endless. We could make a working hypothesis it is symbol of the settelment with relation to Slavonic cross.
1. Inscriptions on ambers is a remarkable mixture of Linear B and Egyptian hieroglyphs.
2. On the yellow amber there is probably the name of the settlement - TIN VAPA - meaning Great Castle followed by a heraldry or a mythological symbol.
On the red amber there is probably the text „foreign palace daughter“.
3. Proto-Slavonic influence on Egyptian hieroglyphs has been examplified: „map of house“ has Proto-Slavonic phonogram „pr“ which means „palěh ris“ (ground plan, foundation).

Addendum - Hlinsko Inscription on spindle whorl

In 1976 Jiří Pavelčík found at archeological excavation near Hlinsko, Moravia, Czech republic, this ceramic spindle whorl, 4670±45 (dated at Groningen), 4675 ±60 (dated in Berlin) years old. Published in Památky archeologické, Praha, 1983, pp 295-315.
Also to find in Record office at Opava (Archiv von Opava), registration number 03940-1078/76.

Translation of Hlinsko inscription by Antonín Horák

Bading Ingo: Zur religions und stadtgeschichte des bronzezeitlichen Mitteleuropa, 2010.
Photographies by M. Eberlein
Horák Antonín: The Paradigm About The Slavs – Inverted (O Slovanech úplně jinak), Lípa Publishing House, Vizovice, 1991.
Moosauer Manfred, Bachmaier Traudl: Bernstorf – Das Geheimnis der Bronzezeit, Theiss – Verlag, 2005.
Richter Joanes: Der Brenner Codex - The Unicode Consortium: