mt_ignoreIn 1885 two French archeologists Cousine and Dürrbach, members of scientific society École de France, were searching classical relicts on the island Lemnos in the Aegean Sea. Near the village Kaminia, they succeeded to find a stony stele (memorial) with authentic inscriptions probably from 6th century BC.

Many decipherments have been published already. But the solutionists (decepherers) were looking for names or place names simply because they did not understood the text. In consequence, they splited up the text wrongly, organized the lines on grounds of seeming shape of lines instead of meaning. (Fig. 1&2 Stele from Lemnos)


Facsimile of the steleAmong the etruscologists, Raymond Bloch (Etruskowie, Panst. Wydaw. Naukowe, Warszawa, 1967) and A. della Sete (Scritti in onore di B. Nagora, Roma, 1957) were the first who have not considered the Lemnos stele as an Etruscian relict. They reasoned rightly:
If the stele was the only one testimony of an inscription on the Lemnos Island then it would be possible to think that a foreigner made this set-piece, who disembarked on the island alone. However several other similar inscriptions on original lemnoian ceramics are indicative beyond dispute that this writing and language served the vernacular inhabitants before Themistokléan raid – as reported by A. della Seto in the article “Scritti in onore di B. Nogara”, Roma, 1957. (dashed by A. Horák).
At last, the fact the Etruscans have nothing in common with Lemnians or Lemnos at all is beeing taken into account. Here we arrive to the heart of the issue: if the inscriptions on the Lemnos stele are the same as Italian inscriptions at the same time, then the Etruscans have nothing in common not even with those Italian inscriptions, which you may find on domestic ceramics and other objects of domestic production, so that these products have to belong to domestic inhabitants of Italy!!!
Actually, of which nationhood were the Lemnians? This only the Lemnos inscriptions can desclose us, which we will read now and discover with surprise they are P r o t o s l a v o n i c !
After reading the inscription we will see there are three different inscriptions there, as a matter of fact, written by different epigraphers in time offset accordingly the situation on the island developed after the Greek raid.
Each of these epigraphers spoke a different Protoslavonic dialect and also used different sings for the same sound. The signs used on the stele have these phonetic values:


Fig. 3 Phonetic values of Lemnos signs. Credit A. Horák (1991)

Tureček’s general comment
The reading of Protoslavonic texts is soft. Instead of reading „E” one should read „Ě” (pronounce “je”), „ci” like „číj”, „zi” like „žíj”. There is a similar habit in Italy nowadays, e.g. „ciao” you pronounce like „čao” and not „kiao”. Also, the soft pronunciation is indicated by a colon after the sign. For example „ZIAZI:”. The letter „I:”with a diacritic colon should be extended to „iJ”. But eve more. The colon at the end softens in this case all consonts and makes the vowels of the word long: „ŽíJÁŽíJ”. This softening is not related to a previous sign only. There are cases where the next sign is softend. Horák’s translation does not mean he took the Czech language as an exemplar one. He rather searched for similarities to other Slavonic languages to find best fit to the orginal Lemnoan inscription. The reason is, while in one Slavonic language certain word become extinct, in another Slavonic language they survived and vice versa. These similarities he found mainly in Serbo-Croatian langauge. This means the Serbs, Croats and Bosnian people would best understand the text of the Lemnos stele. Some Slavonic words did not change for more than 4000 years. For example „raining” in present-day Serbo-Croatian „kiše” you may find on HT-87 table (Fig. 7) third line two last signs).

A challenge
The first (horizontal) inscription

Lemnos inscription
partly devided
splitting into Proto-slavonic (+ phonetics)
Czech literal
english literal translation
arrows suggest reading direction
small letters mean they were added according to Protoslav. grammat. rules
dash means the word on the original stele continues on next line
Ž i JÁŽ i J
those living
next facsimile line follows
M j Á
mně ... rozmlouv-
next facsimile line follows
AVÍ :j
so that I
next facsimile line follows
I observe
next facsimile line follows

Free translation
The living survivors persuaded me, being anxious, to reveal them what I observe from the other world on them alive.

In the following dictionaries the first word is a transcription of the original Lemnoan sign into Roman script (Protoslavonic), the second word is Czech translation, the third one English equivalent and lastly there is Horák\'s comment. Some Horák\'s comments have been adapted for non-Czech readers, and, finally, my comments have been added.

ŽíJÁŽíJ = žijící = those living
Horák\'s comment: In the „ZIAZI” form this word is not understandable but grammatical rules allow to read it like „žijážjí“, probably comming from older „žijašči“. Compare with polish „zijącji“, pronounce „žijonci“, and in Czech „žijící“.
Tureček\'s comment: In Horák’s book the word „ZIAZI” has two different transcript forms. First, it is written like „ŽijÁŽiJÍ”, and second, like „žijážji“. If we adopt grammatical rules (included in other chapters) than in both cases it is a misprint and the correct form should be “ŽíJÁŽíJ” – both “í” have been added.
Under grammatical rules one should understand Protoslavic once, which Horák derived from his decipherments. They are partialy included also in this text.
“ŽíJÁŽíJ” makes the impression as if it could mean “lifelike” (živoucí) instead of Horák’s proposal “living” (žijící). Like in phrase “a very lifelike picture”, which could be ironicaly understood, as well. Compare with the mocking question „ho to věró nažívají“ (what do they call belief?) in the third inscription. Nevertheles for translation I do use the word “žijící” because this is Horák’s translation from Protoslavonic into present Czech and from there into English.
MjÁ = mně = to me
RAŽMAV JÁC [RAŽMÁVUOJÁC] = rozmlouvajíc = communing
Horák\'s comment: The colon behind Z influences the pronunciation to Ž. The sign „- -“ should be read like „uo“ or polish „Ł“ (uo), so the pronounciation is „ražmavuojác“. Polish „rozmawjac“ has the same meaning, i.e. talking to us, persuading us, communing.
CHVĚJÍŽ = chvějíc = quivering
Horák\'s comment: The colon after „Z:” means softening to „Ž“, probably likewise from ancestral „-šč“ meaning „chvějící se (strachem)“ = “quivering (fear-struck)”.
AVÍ:j = abych = so as (to)
Horák\'s comment: The colon after „I“ supplies „j“, perhaps an abbreviation from „avi ja“, what equals to Czech „abych“ meaning „to/so that“ in English.
ZĚVÍU = zjevil = he revealed
AVÍ:j ZĚVÍU = surprinsingly this equals to the Moravian dialect „abych zjevíu“.
Tureček\'s comment: I am not familiar with the Moravian dialects so I am guessing „abych zjevíu“ is present perfect (so that I have revealed). This first inscription is somehow odd at all - a dead warrior is talking as if he were alive. Evidently, this was the intention of the stonecutter. „zjevil“ standing alone is simple preterite “he revealed”. To make the free translation easier I have used present tense.
HO = co = what
Horák\'s comment: „HO“ you may find in other Slavonic languages like „ščo“, „čo“, „co“, „što“, Latin „quo“, Italian „che“, English „what“.
ZĚRO = “zírám“ or „pozoruji“ = „I am staring“ or „I am observing“
NA IH = na nich = on them (I.T. comment: in Croatian H is being read like CH)
ŽIVÁJI = živých (locativ) = (about those) alive

A life philosophy answer
Second inscription (vertical) insribed on both sides of the head

Lemnos inscription partly devided
splitting into Proto-slavonic (+ phonetics)
Czech lilteral translation
english literal translation
arrows suggest reading direction
small letters mean they were added according to Protoslav. grammat. rules
dash means the word on the original stele continues on next line
he is
next facsimile line follows
next facsimile line follows
na něj
I stare
on him

Free translation
Although he is from ours (our) acres comrade enforcer (catchpoll, beadle), I stare on him death having.

HÓCAJ = ač / ačkoliv = although
Horák\'s comment: in Slovak still in use „hocial“ and in Wendic „hacz“.
Tureček\'s comment: Wendic is a language of Sorbians in Germany near to Czech and Polish border.
Ě = je = is (verb)
Z = z = from (preposition)
NAŠČCH = rodných (=genitiv, nominativ=rodný)= native
Horák\'s comment: An important old term „NAŠČ“ appears in several inscriptions (see below) meaning „crop“ or „harvesting“ - in Czech „úroda“. „NAŠČ” also has the meaning „ancestry“ or „native“ - in Czech „rod“. The suffix „-CH“ gives „NAŠČ“ the meaning „rodných“ (genitiv of „rodný“).
Tureček\'s comment: „NAŠČ” you may find in other inscriptions, as well. Horák mentions two: p. 180 (Fig. 4) and p. 228 (Fig. 5) – see addendum.
ÁKĚR-j = pole = fields
Horák\'s comment: The colon behind the word “AKER” means „j“ denoting genitiv plural of „field“ (i.e. fields), „aker“ was derived from „akár“ (field), into German „Acker“ (field) or „ackern“(to plough). The Slavonic „akár“ and the German „Acker“/“ackern“ do come from Protoslavonic „KÁRAJÁ“ („rear“ or „till“ but it also has the meaning „to cultivate, educate“). In „KÁRAJÁ” there is the root „–ÁRA-“, meaning „ÁRA”. For more details see Fig. 7.
Tureček\'s comment: In his 1952 tablet (syllabic writing) Ventris deciphered the sign no. 38 as “E”. This sign actually represents a plough. In Protoslavonic „ěkarát”. In vocal writing the sign was simplified and stands for „A” representing “ARALÓ” (plough).
From the root of „KÁRAJÁ“ („KÁRA-“) the word „UKÁRÁ“ was derived which you may find on tablet PY Ta-711 from the 12th century BC. See addendum Fig. 6.
TA-VÁR-ŽIČ = soudruh = comrade.
Horák\'s comment: The root of the word is „-VAR-“ meaning „production“, „manufacturing“ and with the prefix „TA-“ expressing collective policy (compare with “to-gether”) and the suffix „-ŽIČ” expressing bread-winning function, on the whole a co-bread-winning function. Today we say „journeyman“ (tovaryš in Czech) meaning „co-worker“.
VA-MJACAU-JÁČ = vynucovač = enforcer (catchpoll, beadle).
Horák\'s comment: The root is „-MJAC-“ (moc, nucení = power, pressure) with prefix „VA-“ for today\'s „vy-“ with the ending „-JAČ“ means to „enforcer“ (if this is an English word because have not found in a dictionary) work and products for the nobility.
ZĚRO = „zírám“ or „pozoruji“ = „staring“ or „observing“
NÁJ = na něho = on him
MÓR = smrt = death,
Horák\'s comment: In todays Czech also „z-mar“ (ruin), „máry“ (hearse), German „Mord“ (death), Indian „mare“ (dying), French „mort“ (death).
ÍMAJÍC = mající = having.

on the difference between Greek occupants and the Lemnosian Slavonic slaves - Third inscription (vertical)

Lemnos inscription partly devided
splitting into Proto-slavonic (+ phonetics)
Czech literal translation
english literal
arrows suggest reading direction
small letters have been added according to Protoslavonic grammatical rules
dash means the word on the original stele continues on next line
jsou sející
as far
they are seeding
next facsimile line follows
all they
so that
we seeding
with fear
were dying
so that we
next facsimile line follows
we were proclaiming
they do live
also (eke)

Free translation
Though all, as far they are seeding, instead of them observe and reveal what they call belief, so that we seeding people were dying with fear, so that also about dead warriors we proclaim: look, they still do live also in heaven, silent, quiet.
„of them” means those dead

Some explanations
„what they call“ – the meaning is the Greek occupants
The „seeding people“, as the Slavonic Lemnians used to call themselves, did not belief in God and things like this and someone made a notice the Greeks were imputing a belief on them.

HÓCAJ = ač = though
VŽÍJ = všichni = everyone
Horák\'s comment: „Vžíj“ reminds cyrilic „vЬsЬjí“, russian „vsě – vsjá“ (everyone)
POKJÁ = pokud = so far
SIJÁCĚJ = (jsou) sející = (they are) seeding (sowing)
Horák\'s comment: „POKJÁ SIJÁCĚJ“ = in Slovak „pokial sú sejúcí“ (as far as they are seeding peasants/farmers)
ZĚRO = pozoruji = I observe
ZA = za = instead
Tureček’s comment: On the stele facsimile myself I see “NA” instead of “ZA” but Horák’s decipherment is “ZA”, so I follow his decipherment.
IH = ně = of them
Horák\'s comment: „ZĚRO ZA IH“ = „I observe for them”, thus instead of them from the other world
ĚVIJU = (a) zjevují = (and they) reveal
Horák\'s comment: in Moravian dialect „zjevujú“
HO = co = what
TO = to = it
VĚRÓ = vírou (instrumental) = belief
NAŽÍVAJÍ = nazývají = what they call
Horák\'s comment: „HO TO VĚRO NAŽÍVAJÍ“ - a mocking question „What do they call belief?“ - here in an old fashion the notions „nažívát“ (enjoying a lot) and „nazývat“ (calling someone/something) fall down together, today different.
AVÍJ-Ž = abyzmeš (=abychom) = so that
SIJÁC = sejíc = seeding
CHVÍJ-Ž = strachy = fear of
MARÁLM-j = umírali = they/we were dying
Horák\'s comment: „AVIJŽ SIJÁJC CHVIJŽ MARÁLMJ“ - so that we seeding were dying with fear; this holds generally about farmers who, though doing useful work, are dying through fear. The construction „strachy umírají“ (dying through fear) is vernacular (Moravian dialect) and up to the present day active.
AVIJ-Ž = abyzmeš (=abychom) = so that
Á = aj = as
O = o = about
MAJRÓM-j = mrtvých = of the dead
HARÁČIJÓ-j = bojovnících (hlásali) (lokativ) = warriors
Horák\'s comment: „O MAJROMj HARÁČIJÓj“ = „ABOUT DEAD WARRIORS” from the base „HARÁČ” (warrior), Old Czech „harcieř“ (warrior) from „harc“ (fight), into Hungarian „harcz“ (fight). Thence perhaps name of the roman writer Horacius orginally probably Protoslavonic as well as the name of the author of these lines „Horák“ (once a warrior), while „horal“ (highlander, primarily „har-vát“)
Tureček\'s comment: In Polish the word „harcieř“ does exist up to the present day meaning “scout”.
ČIVÁJ = dívej = watch out
Horák\'s comment: „ČIVÁJ“ is imperativ „see!“ (look here!), in Old Czech „číti!“ (View! Sense!), here from also „čidla“ (sensors, sense organs)
ĚCTĚ =ještě = yet
ŽIJÓ = žijí = live
Tureček\'s comment: „ŽIJÓ” is being used up to the present in various dialects. Among Slavs when clinking glasses people use to say „ŽIVIJÓ!”
Á = aj = also
Tureček\'s comment: In Slovak “aj” means “yes” or “also”. This word is also used in Moravské Slovácko (Moravian Slovakia) – a part of Moravia near to Slovak border.
RÁJI = (v) ráji = (in) heaven
Horák\'s comment: „A RÁJI“ is old lokativ without preposition „v“; similarly in Old Czech „lesě“ is without preposition “v” while nowadays „v lese“ (in the woods), in front of the word there is the element „á“ here with the meaning „aj dokonce v ráji“ (also even in heaven)
TICH: = tiší (nomin. plur.) = silently (adjective is „tichý)
POKĚ-j = pokojní (nomin. plur.) = restfully (adjective is „pokojný)
Horák\'s comment: „TICH: POKĚJ - the colon at the end of the first word and the „POKĚJ\'s“ trailing „J“ form the adjectives „silently, restfully“ expressing that these dead do not rebel against the occupants any more.

What tells us the Lemnos stele?
The first important thing is that the text talks to us in a language of Protoslavonic liege people and not in a language of a governor. The Lemnos Stele has in so far fundamental importance in explanation of the whole civilization and culture of ancient Greece. For Greek culture, as far as it shows “scientific” and cultural elements, is a continuation of the naturalistic (materialistic) and literal culture of ancestral neolitic inhabitants of the Balkan, i.e. Protoslavonians.
The question is, why the Greecs have not colonized the Lemnos island earlier, although the island is on their voyage. Horák answers, the Greek were superstitous and believed Hefaistos was living on that island whom they feared a lot. The stele is one of the last evidence of the Protoslavonic population before they were Hellenized.
Next, the question is how long did this Protoslavonic population live on this island? Horák discusses many events described by Plato. Also, he discusses the eruption of vulcanos in the years 1380 BC and 1184 BC and their possible influce upon extinction of Aegean and Mediterranean cultures especially in 1184 BC.

Turecek\'s comment
The Lemnos stele was found near the village Kaminia. Although the name was Hellenized, it is of Slavonic origin - Kamenice. There are many villages of this name in the Czech Republic, in Slovakia and on the Balkan, as well. The name means the village of stonecutters. In Czech, Slovak, Serbo-Croatian and Slovenian the word „kámen“ means „stone“. In Polish written as “kamieň”, in Bulgarian „камък“ (pronounce like „kam-k“), in Macedonian „камен“, in Russian „камень“ (pronounce like „kamjeň“) etc. In Greece there are several places of this name according to internet search. For example Kaminia is a district in Pireus, port of Athens. Also, “Athens” is a helleniziated word for “a tínija” – in Protoslavonic meaning “at the market”.
Lemnos is a Hellenized ‘Lomnice’ meaning a stone or an ore pit coming probably from Protoslavonic “LÓM?NA” (question mark standing for vowels). In Bulgarian still „ломна“ (pronanciation “lómna”), Russian „ломня“ („lómnja“), in Czech „lom“.

About Horák’s book
In his book On Slavs The Very Other Way (Publisher Lípa, Vizovice, 1991) Horák deciphered 15 both linear A and linear B inscriptions and 20 vocal writings which appeared throughout Europe – mainly middle and south-east - before the Etruscans came into power. The so called mystery of Etruscan writings is a simple misunderstanding. In 82 examples he shows their Protoslavonic origin. Amongst them Vetulon Stele, Novilar Stele, Cippus Perusinus, Golden Plates from Pyrga, inscriptions on many statues, ceramics, mirrors, the leaden plate from Magliana, grave inscriptions, Pesar Bilingva etc. He also brings 14 translations outside of Etruscan power like The Tablet from Iguvium Nr. 5, several inscriptions from Pompej, Egyptian mummy from Zagreb (this implies Slavonic speaking people in ancient Egypt) etc. He also included archeological findings, geological descriptions, history and other aspects. The Pesar Bilingva, for example, shows surprisingly sociological and psychological facts about the life of Slavonic and Etruscan etnics in Pesara .
Horák was able to show the contexts between syllabic and „Etruscan” (in reality Slavonic) writing – namely the Slavonic origin of these writing systems maintained by Slavonic slaves. He must have been working on his book for many years. According to his notice in his book he collected material already in 1984.

Antonin Horák as personality
As linguist, Antonín Horák (1918-2004) is more then a dignified continuator of Michael Ventris (1922-1956) because he could demonstrate the context between linear A, linear B and so-called „Etruscan” writing. As cameraman he shaped, among many other movies, the film Journey To Prehistory (Cesta do Pravěku, 1955) under director Karel Zeman, which was the first of the “Jurassic Park” type films throughout the planet. Jurassic Park III could be considered as a remaker of Zeman’s film. For more information about Antonín Horák as cameraman see

Exampels of „NAŠČ“ (“depicting harvest”)


Fig. 4 A vessel from Clusium (Italy), 6th century BC, with the inscription CLIKAŠČ NÁŠČ meaning “depicting harvest”. In Serbian the word „slikat“is similar to CLIKAŠČ and means „to depict“.


Fig. 5 A tomb with NAŠČ inscription
Another example of NAŠČ meaning „born“ („narozený“ in Czech). The inscription goes like this: „Former (or creator) here born (in Italy) ... created beeing guild member ... but cursed.“ Member of a guild is abbreviated as „ČL“. meaning “član” (member) in Protoslavonic.
As a source Horák gives the newspaper Rudé právo (=Red Law or Red Justice), 1969, Czechoslovakia. No any other specification is known.

Example of UKÁRÁ („to reproach“)


Fig. 6 Tablet PY Ta 711 and it’s transcription, word division and translation into Czech. Credit Antonin Horák, 1991.

The word „UKÁRÁ“ („kárat“ in present-day Czech) you may find in the 2nd line 6th word. On the tablet „UKÁRÁ” means “he reproaches”. Similar word „UKÁRÁ-šč” (“reproaching”) you may find on the 3rd line 8th word.

The following English translation of the tablet matches the czech word order to ensure equivalence between Protoslavonic, Czech and English versions. Comments in parenthesis have been added. The inscription goes like this: “(1st) having seen … leaks … he is angry, … run away … alien … furious … to sent for … (local) foreman; … (2nd) mopping up … us (genitiv) … Wanas … revealing … what … he reproaches (twits) … nauseating (conversion-noun) … drawings … vessel; … (3rd) mopping up … us (genitiv) … Wanas … revealing … to … us (dativ) … what … reproaching … it … next time … I get there … vessel

Examples of „ÁRÁ“ („fields“)


Fig. 7 Tablet from palace Hagia Triada HT-87 gives examples of „KIŠE“ (it is raining) on the 3rd line two last signs and of „ÁRÁ“ (fields) on the 5th line first two signs.

„ÁRÁ“ is similar to „ÁR“, i.e. a surface unit 10 m x 10 m. This word survived up to the present in a long pronunciation “ár” in Slovak, Serbian, Bulgarian, Swedish. In short version “ar” in Czech, Rumanian, German, in Russian cyrillic “ap”, “ara” in Italian, “are” in English, French, Portugese etc. We can conclude that these two words – “ÁRÁ” and “AR” were adopted by all European languages. It is possible that the Swiss city “Aarau” has something in common with “ÁRÁ”.


Transcription and translation of HT 87 into Czech.
Credit Antonin Horák, 1991.

The following English translation of the Hagia Triada HT 87 tablet is equivalent to the Czech word order to ensure equivalence between Protoslavonic, Czech and English versions: (1st) line “Thee … here … master … awaits you”; (2nd) line “buyer … asks … itself … cattle (bull?)”; 3rd line “spring … is … mild … not (NI) … raining (KIŠĚ).”; (4th) line “He wants … also … harness … into … the hands“; (5th) line “(But) fields are … mine … and … bull … as well.“
Tureček’s comment: I do not understand “si” at the end of the 4th line or the ending “-s” in “RUKUs”. Perhaps the meaning is “himself”, i.e. “Himself he wants to buy the harness.”


Fig. 8 Tablet from Faistos IV – 16. 2. millennium BC gives examples for „ÁRÁ“ (fields). The word „Á-RÁ“ you may find on the first line the two last signs and on the third line.

There were no schools in the neolitic ages where neolitic people could learn how to read and write. So, the solution was the signs resembled real objects and the first syllable gave the sign its sound value. Today we call it acrophony. Very foxy solution.


Transcription and translation of Faistos IV – 16 into Czech.
Credit Antonín Horák, 1991.

English translation is equivalent to the Czech word order to ensure equivalence between Protoslavonic, Czech and English versions: (1st) line “they are not … indeed … your … fields”; (2nd) line “they are not … ploughed up (by you) … same”; (3rd) line “fields”; (4th). line “not (NO) … I will give (DAJÁ-šč) … all the … harvest!”

Some notes to PY Ta 711 Tablet made by A. Horák
1) On this tablet we also have an evident proof of the existence of Slavonic settlements on Creta - see the word „WÁNÁ” on the 2nd and the 3rd line.

2) „DAMOKORO” (local foreman) is another interesting word telling us something about economical and organizational ordering of Protoslavonic settlements. At the head of a workshop – and a village as well – there was a senior „DAMOKORO” and this system was called „DAMOKOROČIA” („domestic guidance”).

3) The Asia-Tatarian invaders (the Greeks) adopted this ordering for themselves and they even took over the name and adapted it into Greek “demokratia”. But they gave it a completely opposite meaning. Instead, they enslaved the authentic Slavonic inhabitants.

4) The 5th century BC Greek demokratia had nothing in common with Protoslavonic „DAMOKOROČIA”. As far as we know, at the antique period about 20 slaves fall on each Grecian and these slaves did not enjoy the rights of democracy and largely the Slavonic people were slaves. In the ancient era there were probably no other slaves than the Slavonian ones. This would mean that the ancient world represented a decline of communities. The consequence was an unbelievable growth of estate of few people.

(Based on Antonín Horák: On Slavs The Very Other Way, Publisher Lípa, Vizovice, 1991. Adaptation and translation by Igor Tureček.)