Introduction
I have tried in vain to impose upon this work of mine a clear and concise system, which would have a place for everything and have everything in its place. The reality is that virtually each item impacts many other items and is impacted in turn by many. Thus, by imposing any one logical sequence - one invalidates a sequence or a system which may be more useful just a few lines later. The logic imposed upon this work is seldom linear but rather radial. Like in interstellar space the placement of each item is determined (for the moment) by the placement of other entities. The autonomous "MONOGRAPHS" are numbered and subsequently other monographs refer to those presented earlier and in a symbiotic way augment them and in turn are augmented. Thus the order of the monographs is largely inconsequential, and the numbering of the monographs mostly serves as points of reference.

100 + MONOGRAMS INDICATING THAT SLAVIC OR TONGUES ARE PROTOTYPICAL OF ALL THE OTHER INDO-EUROPEAN LANGUAGES
 
First compiled in 2000, last modified in 2008 By Petr Jandáček, 127 La Senda Rd. Los Alamos NM USA 87544 Tel: (505)672 9562; e-mail Ta e-poštni naslov je zaščiten proti smetenju. Potrebujete Javascript za pogled. More information available on request

 

#1. For more than a century linguists have observed that the phonemes (sounds made to represent) numerals in the languages of India (Hindi, Punjabi, Bengali, Sanskrit, etc.) and in the languages of Europe (Those based on Latin > (Romanic}: Italian, Spanish, French, etc.) & Germanic (German, Swedish, English, etc.) & Slavic (Russian, Slovenian, Czech, etc.) & Celtic (Irish, Scottish, Bretton etc.) & Greek, Albanian, Armenian, Bactrian languages, etc, are very similar!

Thus the sounds representing No. 3 are Three, Drei, Tres, Try, Tři, etc.

The sounds representing No. 6 are Six, Sechs, Sies, Šest, Cue etc. are all related.

#2. It has totally escaped the notice of linguists that in the Slavic Languages the similarities are not only inter-linguistic but also intra-linguistic. The odd number and the next higher even number rhyme, thus possessing an internal symmetry and elegance, which had been lost in the subsequent evolution of the other Indo-European languages!

Observe: (in Czech) TŘI (#3) rhymes with ČTYŘI (#4), PĚT (#5) rhymes with ŠEST (#6), SEDM (#7) rhymes with OSM (#8) and DEVĚT (#9) rhymes with DESET (#10). In the Slavic languages the internal logic in counting possesses integrity (integration). The disintegration of the odd - even phonemic match system is the subsequent condition in all other Indo-Europeans languages!

#3. What the Slavs call the different numbers makes a lot of sense. What other Indo-Europeans call their numbers only makes sense when viewed through a Slavic filter.

It is likely that early humans first counted on their fingers (as little children still do). Significantly the Slav word for "finger" is  "PRST". "PRST" is evidently the root of "first". "DRUH" or "DRUG" in Slavic languages has a wide lexical domain. It means a "fellow", "variety", "another", and "second". As such (DU) it is ostensibly the root word for English "two", German "zwei", Hindi "do", Spanish "dos" etc. Hunters and gatherers such as the Plains Indians constructed teepees. Tripods or four corner pyramids have been recognized from antiquity to be synonymous with structural strength. TRI, TRY, TVRD, TVRZ etc. are Slavic phonemes, which conjure at the same time numbers three and four as well as hardness and strength. Consider the English word truss.

Five and fist are cognitively and phonetically related. This is also true in German with fünf and Faust. Punio is the Spanish for fist. While punio is not related to cinco it is related to pentagon and punch! In no branch of I-E languages is the relation between fist and five closer than in the Slavic languages, as for instance in Czech: PĚST - PĚT. Hand Span in Czech is ROZPJAT or PJAT and a very small step to PĚT - the word for five.

Six is likely from S JEŠTě (with yet more). It is ŠEST in Czech. If that is not compelling enough, consider that seven, which is SEDM in Czech, sounds like: SE DVEMA (with two more). Thus, arguably, the common Indo-European words for six and seven are derived from the Slavic concept of "a fist or a handspan with an extra" and "a fist with two extras" (S JEŠTě = 6 & SE DVĚMA = 7).

As mentioned earlier, in Slavic languages alone the phonemes for 3&4, 5&6, 9&10 rhyme. This is also true for 7 & 8 (SEDM & OSM). Again note that DEVĚT & DESET (the Slav phonemes for nine & ten) rhyme!

Note also that the phonemic components D-S-T are common to Slavic words for ten, hundred, thousand and subsequent multiples of these.

10 is DESET, 100 is STO, 1000 is TISÍC (which is a contraction and corruption of DESET SET (TSTST). Thus Latin centum (100) and Avestian satem (100) both derive from SLAVIC etymology of STO (100).


Here we can compare Hindi, Czech and English names for numerals:

HINDI EN DO THY ČAR PA CUE SAT AT NO DAY
CZECH JEDEN DVA TŘI ČTYŘI PĚT ŠEST SEDM OSM DEVĚT DESET
ENGLISH ONE TWO THREE FOUR FIVE SIX SEVEN EIGHT NINE TE

 
Notice that there is no rhyme in the Hindi, nor the English, but only in the Czech.

The Slavic rhyming of numerals would have been very useful in binary weaving and basketry (stone age technologies) and has an impact on our understanding of a binary system (10101100 etc.) in modern computer science.

See also: P. Jandáček, Base ten counting as the extension of the archetypical base five system of Basques and Slavs, Proceedings of the International workshop Traces of European Past, Založništvo JUTRO, Ljubljana 2004, pp. 74-84; cf. also www.korenine.si

#4. As a rule, in modern languages there is an abbreviation from archaic long words towards shorter recent words.

This principle of abbreviation is more evident in long words.

Please observe:

Russian            Czech              German            English

korova             kráva               kuh                  cow

moloko            mléko              milch                milk

yabloko           jablko              apfel                apple.

This will be explored much more in subsequent monographs as evidence that Slavic languages are prototypical and thus likely ancestral to the other Indo- European Languages. Throughout the balance of this paper please observe that as a rule Slavic languages have longer forms of words than does English.

#5. Let us examine some of the historical blunders and disinformation regarding the similarities between the majority of the languages of Europe and the Indian sub-continent. At first these languages were called "Japetic". The three sons of Biblical Noah were named Sam, Ham, and Japet and the tongues were presumed to be the speech of Japet and his light skinned descendants. As the conflict between literal interpretation of the Bible and evolutionists (in biology & linguistics) became more poignant - the name was changed from Japetic to "Indo-Germanic". Ostensibly, this name was chosen to exclude the largest group of Indo-Europeans in Europe, the SLAVS - who just happened to live between India and German lands. After more years the Slavs too came to be recognized as having languages similar to Indo-Germanic and the name of the language group was changed to Indo-European. To place SLAVIC languages on par with Germanic languages was a terrible insult to the German scholars. The whole of Indo-European Languages was divided into two parts. Logic would dictate that one would perceive the dichotomy as one part in Europe and the other on and near the Indian sub-continent. In the minds of the German scholars this would forge too close of an affinity between the sophisticated Latinic and Germanic languages of the West and the backward SLAVIC languages. Arbitrarily the Latin and Avestian words for one hundred were chosen to provide the "proper distance" between the Germanic and Slavic Languages. The Latin word for 100 is centum. The Avestian word for 100 is satem. It was stated that the Slavic word STO was more similar to the Avestian "satem" than to the Latin "centum". On this capricious pretext the Slavic languages were lumped together with those of India. Of course under monograph #3 we have determined that the etymology of centum, satem, and STO is in fact Slavic! Lumping Slavic languages with the languages of India justified the program of "Drang nach Osten". Another name chosen for the Indo-European languages was Aryan after the light skinned Indo-Europeans who (under the sign of the swastika) conquered the darker Dravidian speakers in India. Aryan was the designata applied to those people who were destined to subjugate inferior peoples. Because it was absurdly obvious that the Slavic languages were much more like German than they were like the languages of India - mythology was invented which claimed that Czech and Lech came from the Pripyat River marshes and settled in the Polish and Czech regions in the 6th Century AD. Thus, if it were difficult to lump Slavs with Indians, the Slavs had to be portrayed as recent newcomers from swamps. The problem with this mythology is that it is fiction. It was fabricated without any historical indicators. It is a pure fairytale in the same cathegory as Snowwhite and the Seven Dwarfs. Ancient Greek and later historians and geographers recorded the migrations of virtually all Europeans but never mentioned the movement of the largest group, the Slavs. We have detail records of the migrations of Magyars, Avars, Huns, Angles, Saxons, Jutes, Alamans, Sueves, Vandals, Goths, Estrogoths, Visigoths, Frisians, Lombards, Bulgars, Romans, Normans, Moors, Tartars, Mongols, Turks, Norsemen, Danes, Baiovarii, Rugi, Sabiri, Markomani, Quadi, etc, etc, etc. but, alas, no mention is ever made of the migrations of the Slavic Peoples (except Croats and Serbs). If history does not mention the migrations of the Slavs, can geography hold any clues? The Slavic territory is largely land locked. Unless a movement of the peoples involved a phase that launched a thousand ships which landed millions of people on the shores of the Arctic, Baltic, Adriatic, Black, or Caspian Seas, it is likely that the Slavs would have moved through the lands of the Greeks, Romans, Teutons, or Illyrians or Celts. Yet none of the neighbors ever noticed that millions of SLAVS moved into a tremendously large core of Europe.

The Polabian Slavs lived in Denmark and Balkan Slavs were in every part of Greece at a time when they should have been restricted to the Pripyat River marshes. It is absurdly obvious that the Slavs have been living in their present lands in prehistoric times and that lands to their west were also largely Slavic. We must remember that the absence of evidence is not the same thing as evidence of absence! Just because ancient historians did not mention the Slavs does not mean the Slavs were not there. Prior to 1491 no historians mentioned the indigenous peoples of North and South America. That does not mean that the continents and their people popped up from the ocean shortly after that. Nor did the Slavs pop up from the Pripyat river marshes in 550 AD.

In more recent times it is considered in bad taste to represent some languages as being superior to others. A "democratic paradigm" demands that we consider all Indo-European languages as equal (in prestige and antiquity). But, certainly, we know that some languages are old by the virtue of the fact that they have changed very little while others are new in response to pressures from neighbors or changes in location and technology. I will argue that Slavic languages have changed very little and ergo are very old. Slovenian and Czech are the western-most Slavic languages. Russian is the eastern-most. Yet, by virtue of the fact that they have changed so little they are more mutually intelligible than are the Germanic or Romance languages. Croatian, Serbian, Macedonian, Bulgarian and Ukrainian provide a continuum between Slovenian and Russian. Polish, Slovak, Ukrainian and Belarusian provide linguistic increments between Russian and Czech.

#6. Many "trees" of Indo-European Languages have been drawn over many years. As a rule, such trees are depicted from the side, and place the prestigious Germanic and Romance languages near the top of the tree. The other languages are placed as less prestigious offshoots along the periphery of the tree. The peripherous shoots represent the Iranian, Indic, Slavic, Baltic, Armenian, Celtic, Greek and Albanian. I believe that I am the first to depict the Indo-Europeans Language Tree as seen from above. As viewed from above, the tree gives a more accurate geographical view of the relationships between these languages. Please observe my language tree from a "bird\'s eye view and ask yourself these questions:

What languages do you find between Vedic Sanskrit and Viking Old Norse?

What languages do you find between Tocharian and Portuguese?

Which languages do you find between India and Germany (Indo-Germanic)?

Which languages do you find between Icelandic and Iranian?

Which languages do you find between Gaelic and Kurdish?

Which languages do you find between Old Prussian and Anatolian?

Which languages do you find between Lithuanian and Greek?

Which languages do you find between Albanian and Latvian?

No matter how you slice the Indo-European Pie you will always cut through the center of Slavondom.

PIE is the designation for "Proto-Indo-European" as well as for the conventional graphic representation of statistical portions in the shape of a round edible tart. Ergo - the PIE analogy is very fitting in three ways: Tart, Graph and Acronym!

The wisdom of the second half of the 20th Century was that Slavic languages were on par with the more prestigious languages of the Civilized West, or at least nearly on par. There was the nagging understanding of the fact that as languages evolve they have a tendency to become less complex and more and more abbreviated and parsimonious in structure, grammar and vocabulary. Applying these rules made it obvious that the Slavic languages retained many more of the archaic features of ancient languages. In English, for instance, words like hither and thither to indicate motion proximal or distal have disappeared, while in Slavic languages SEM & TAM (TJA) are alive and well. Similarly, Slavic languages maintain a strict segregation of nouns and verbs. In English independent verbs have largely been replaced by action words based on nouns. Thus in English you can walk the walk and talk the talk and hammer with a hammer and nail the picture to the wall with a nail. It would be absurd to say in Slavic tongues: KLADIVOVAT KLADIVEM. The use of cases in Slavic languages is also a very archaic feature of I-E languages. In most Slavic languages the vocative had merged with the nominative and is preserved in only the Our Father as OTČE NAŠ (rather than ATYEC). In Modem Czech the vocatlve survives in contemporary usage. Thus in Slavic languages usually six cases survive out of the original Indo-European eight. In the Czech aspect of Slavic seven out of eight survive.

#7. We can say that: "all Indo European languages are equal" in the same way as saying that "all air breathing vertebrates are equal". Among air breathing vertebrates of the ages past and present we have:

Amphibians,

Reptiles,

Egg Laying Mammals (Monothremes),

Marsupials (with pockets like kangaroos),

Placental Mammals,

Dinosaurs,

Marine Plesiosaurs,

Flying Pterosaurs,

Birds.

In some ways (arguably) all these creatures are equal. But, if we consider that reptiles evolved from amphibians and subsequently gave rise to all the other groups, then the reptiles are ancestral to mammals, birds, dinosaurs etc.

#8. SLAVOform languages coexisted with Proto-Basque in Stone Age Europe. Basque remained largely isolated and had imploded and shrunk to a few regions in Northern Spain and South-Western France. The Slavoform Proto-Indo-European exploded into all parts of Europe and into India (and many regions between Europe and India). It mutated into Italic, Celtic, Germanic, Anatolian, Helenic, Illyric, Iranic, Tocharic and Indic derivatives as these were influenced by migrations and contacts with other peoples. The non-Slavic Indo-European languages display Slavic features in their archaic forms more than in their modern aspects. In the lexicon of hunters and gatherers of Stone Age Europe, Basques and Slavs still share many words.

For a more extensive comparison of Basque and Slavic see also: P. Jandáček, L. Arko, Linguistic connections between Basques and Slavs (Veneti) in antiquity, Proceedings of the first International Topical Conference The Veneti within the ethnogenesis of the Central-European population, Založništvo JUTRO, Ljubljana 2002, pp. 151-166; cf. also www.korenine.si

Those who would disagree with my contention that Slavic languages are prototypical and ancestral to the other Indo-European languages have no arguments other than the worn-out disinformation of ethnocentric Japetic > Indo-Germanic > Aryans who were not above centum-satemizing the truth to promote their own expansionist doctrines. The reader is encouraged to compare their 19th century arguments to mine. In countering their bias I need to be vigilant that I would not err in distortion of the truth in the other direction.

#9. By the 1990s there were linguists like Dr. Don Ringe and Dr. Ann Taylor and a computer scientist Dr. Tandy Warnow (The Los Alamos Monitor, January 2, 1996, p.1) who had the courage to state that "Ancient Germanic, which gave rise to English, Dutch and German was closely related to BALTO-SLAVIC, whose modern descendants include Lithuanian, Latvian, Russian, Czech, and Polish. Then its speakers migrated westward, coming into contact with speakers of Italic and Celtic." It had been a long arduous journey for Slavic languages to be recognized as ancestral to English and other prestigious languages.

#10. Until recently it would have been unthinkable to suggest that English and German evolved from SLAVIC Languages! This reminds me of the statement attributed to the wife of the anti-evolutionist Bishop Usher. She is supposed to have said: "Descended from apes??? Let us hope it is not so! But if it is ...let us hope it will not become generally known!!!"

In the context of linguistics we can substitute the word "Slavs" where you read "apes". In the following monographs you will see that Slavic or Balto-Slavic languages are not only ancestral to Germanic but also to Italic and other groups.

#11. While more monographs will follow, illustrating how Italic - Latinic - Romanic Languages also evolved from Slavic, here is just a small sample: Most people recognize the Latin word vesper or vespers as the term for evening or evening prayers. One is likely to assume that the Classical language was likely to be the source for the lowly Slavic word for evening: VEČER.

But if you analyze the etymology of vesper - VEČER you will see that it is purely Slavic VE ČERNO (into the black).

VEČER > vesper > yesterday may form an etymological sequence. The element yester as in yesterday or yesteryear is likely derived from vesper - VEČER - VE ČER NO.

Bezpera is the Basque word for yesterday. In Czech it is VČERA, in Slovenian it is VČERAJ, whereas in Spanish it is ayer.

#12. Vast majority of Indo-Europeanists place the geographical origins of Indo-Europeans within the territories of Slavic nations.

A. Georgiev places the cradle of Indo-Europeans (I.E.) (in a large ellipse) from Western Bohemia to Eastern Ukraine.

B. Devoto places the I.E. cradle in a circle around Austria. Hungary, Slovakia, PoIand and Czech Rep.

C. Diakonov places the Indo-Europeans cradle in a rough circle including Polish Galicia, Slovakia, Hungary, Croatian Slavonia, Bosnia-Hercegovina, Vojvodina, and Transylvania.

D. Bosch - Gimpara place the I.E. cradle in the territory between Hamburg, Munich, Central Rumania and Minsk.

E. Danilenko places the I.E. cradle north of the Black Sea.

F. Hausler places the original homeland of the Indo-Europeans from southern Scandinavia to Western Bohemia and the vast region of Europe east of that.

G. Makkay identifies the original I.E. home as the land east of a diagonal line between Western Bohemia and Northern Greece.

Please notice the flawed logic

1. Prehistoric Slavs lived in the same place as contemporary Slavs do. (Since no historian ever recorded Slavic migration except for Croats and Serbs >> we must presume that the Slavs lived in that same place before historians wrote their histories.)

2. The prehistoric homeland of all INDO-EUROPEANS is in the homeland of the prehistoric and contemporary SLAVS.

3. From this prehistoric homeland of SLAVS and all Indo-Europeans, the INDO-EUROPEANS migrated to Western Europe, India, Tocharian Chinese Turkistan and points in between.

4. But, (the. flawed logic continues) the ANCIENT SLAVS are not the same as the ancestors of the Ancient Indo-Europeans.

Perhaps the flaws of the logic would be more conspicuous if put into zoological terms such as:

a. The first fishes as well as Contemporary Fishes live(d) in water.

b. Fishes lived in water before human zoologists noticed that fishes lived in water. Fishes lived in water long before any human zoologists lived or wrote about fishes. At one time fishes were the only vertebrates.

c Land Vertebrates such as Amphibians, Reptiles, Mammals and Birds evolved from aquatic vertebrates who lived in water.

d. But (the flawed logic continues) Terrestrial Vertebrates such as Amphibians, Reptiles, Mammals and Birds do not have fishy ancestors.

#13. The further we go back into the antiquity of Germanic, Italic, Celtic, Indic, or other I-E languages the more Slavic they appear. Again, using a zoological analogy, Archaeopterix appeared more reptilian than do any contemporary birds. Take for example the original Indo-European word for "honey". The American Heritage School Dictionary 1972-77 states MEAD 1 /med/ n. An alcoholic beverage made of fermented honey and water. Mead 1 was Old English medu: It descended from prehistoric Indo-European medhu. "honey, honey wine."

It is compelling to see that prehistoric Indo-European is synonymous with SIavonic (at the very least in this example).

#14. Lets consider more facts about honey and mead (MED). Humans are inordinately susceptible to Respiratory Ailments. Since antiquity humans have relied on the power of honey (fresh or modified by fermentation) to relieve the symptoms of pain of the larynx and coughing. Honey is arguably synonymous with Balm, Well Being, Mend and Cure. Because honey is hydrotrophic (it attracts water) it can also be used topically on the top of the skin. If one has water on the knee - an external application of honey will draw the surplus water out of the inflamed joint.

The Common Slavic word for "honey" Is "MED". The Czech word for "mead" is "MEDOVINA". Slovenian word for "mead" is "MEDICA". There is a high likelihood that words such as Medic, Medical, Medicament, Medicine, etc. are all derived from the Slovenian and Common Slavic "MEDICA". Bee-keeping (reputably) was a very great specialty of the ancient Slavs. "Magic" too may be derived from "MEDICa".

#15. Copper, a reddish, orangish or pinkish colored metal, was extensively used before the Iron Age and before the Bronze Age. Copper is called MĚĎ (MYED) in several Slavic languages. Perhaps the early use of MYED (copper) is the reason why we call similar substances METals and MEDals.

#16. KOVati is the Czech word for the activity (verb) to forge, to smith, to hammer, to stamp a METAL (Metal in Czech is KOV). GOV is the Bretton word for smith, which in Slavic is KOVač or KOVář or KOVár. This, in turn may give us copper.

#17. The word alloy is obviously from LITI, LEJTI - the Slavic word to pour together, to combine liquids. Actually, the Czech words for bronze are either BRONZ or LITINA. This is related to LUJ (LOJ) > melted lard and the root for OLEJ (Oil).

#18. Before metals, people were forced to make their products from sticks and stones. KAMEN is the common Slavic word for stone, but there are several other archaic Slavic words for rock or stone, which are preserved in Slovenian. These include ČER, KAMEN, PEČ, PEČINA, PEČKA and SKALA. English words such as ceramics, cherry, chimney, petrified, petroleum, baker, bake and scaling can all be traced back to the Slavic words for stone (sometimes through a Latin intermediary step).

#19. The English word cherry has similar counterparts in virtually all western I-E languages. At first glance Spanish cereza, English cherry or Slavic forms TŘEŠNĚ, ČEREŠNE, ČERJESNE, ČREŠNJE, ČEŠNJE, all seem to be of equal value in the Indo-Europeans puzzle. But closer examination reveals that the meaning of the word ČER-JESNE in Slavic actually means "the stoned edibles"!

#20. Spanish camino, English chimney (komin) are evidently derived from the Slavic word for stone "KAMEN". The Czech word for stove is KAMNA, following the same rationale, that the stove and the chimney are constructed from noncombustible stone.

#21. The English word baker and Slavic PEKAR or PEK are conspicuously related. The etymology of both words is Slavic and perhaps of Stone Age origin, cf.:

Czech    Slovenian       English

pec         peč, pečina      steep (rugged) rock; crag; bluff; cliff

pec         peč                 oven, stove, furnace

pecka     pečka              small oven

pecař      pečár              oven builder, stove maker

pečeť     pečát               seal, stamp

pekař     pek                 baker

pečivo    pecivo             baked goods, fancy bread, cakes, biscuits

 

PEČ, PEČINA, PEČKA form thus a constellation of Slavic words which mean stone, or stone structure. Thus, before there was a baker (Slavic PEKAŘ, PEK) there had to be an oven (Slavic PEC, PEČ or PECKA, PEČKA) and an oven builder (Slavic PECAŘ, PEČAR) who constructed the PEC, PEČ or PECKA, PEČKA out of chunks of rock (PEC, PEČ, or PECKA, PEČKA).

While we must acknowledge that the first breads were unleavened and baked on heated flat rocks or in ashes, it is proper and fitting to realize that the Slavic PEC (PEČ) constellation of concepts lead to the more readily recognized oven baking revolution.

#22. Besides a small oven, PECKA, PEČKA, PEŠKA more commonly means a stone of a fruit.
PECKA means also the core of flint, obsidian or other vitreous stone used by primitive peoples to knapp projectile points or other stone implements.

#23. ČER is another Slavic word for stone. The Slavic root is probably the etymological source of ceramics = ČER a MICHAT (the mixing of stone stuff). Thus in review of stone technology we can see that at every step of the way we stumble over a Slavic word for stone.

#24. In the ancient world, stone or earth was one of the Four Elements. Almost as in pursuit of a "Unified Field Theory" (strong force, weak force, electromagnetism, and gravity) the Four Elements come together etymologically in the Slavic languages.

fire - VATRA (mostly South Slav) camp-fire.

wind - VIETR

water - VODA

earth (solid, hard) - TVRD.

The ancient Greeks wrote about the four elements. But they may have borrowed the concept from their SLAV slaves. Thus, we can see that somehow in the mind of ancient pre-Indo-Europeans solid, liquid, gas, and plasma were considered as different permutations of existence and that they each contained the Phonemic Elements of V-W, T-D, and R. In three of the four permutations these are far better preserved in the Slavic forms. "Water" is better preserved linguistically in English. Significantly, the Czech word TOPlT means both to kindle fire and to drown.

When the first four "elements" were expanded to about 100, it was another Slav (Mendeleev) who created another periodic chart.

See also website: www.veneti.info, P. Jandacek, The Four Elements of the Ancient World as Seen Through the Eyes of Ancient Slavs.

#25. The Slavic word for eye - OKO is obviously related to the Spanish ojo as well as to other Indo-European words for that organ of sight. Significantly, in Slavic languages a symmetry (rhyme) exists between it and UCHO - the Slavic word for ear. This is very similar to the rhyme between the Czech (Slavic) names for numbers 3 = TŘI, 4 = ČTYŘI; 5 = PĚT, 6 = ŠEST: 7 = SEDM, 8 = OSM; 9 = DEVĚT and 10 = DESET (see monograph #2).

#26. Beside the words for eye and ear, lets look at other features of the face, which reveal obvious Slavic etymology. BRVA, OBRV (brow) and BRADA (beard) rhyme in Czech. That in itself may not be very impressive. The meaning of BRADA as a beard is however secondary. The primary definition of BRADA is chin. Obviously, one needs a chin before one can grow a beard.

#27. The Slavic word for nose is NOS. Obviously these two are of common origin. But NOS (Slavic) has double meaning. NOS also means carrier (podnos, přenos) etc. What does this carrier carry? Scent, odor, aroma.

#28. On a bird, the nose is incorporated into a beak. Beak is an obvious abbreviation of ZOBÁK. But ZOBÁK is derived from the Slavic ZUB, ZOuBEK, tooth.

#29. Tusk is a specialized tooth, which is used for piercing. It is the same as the Slavic TESAK. The etymology of tusk - TESÁK is purely Slavic and derived from such words as TESAT (to chisel) and TESLA (as in Nikola) adze (an axe-like device which chops with a blade oriented like a hoe).

#30. Long original words have a tendency to be abbreviated and/or fragmented. This is well demonstrated by names. Original long names are frequently fractioned as in Elizabeth producing Elisa, Lisa, Betty, Beth; Andrew producing Andy or Drew; Alexander producing Alex, Alec, Sander, Sandy or only Al.

Very often the SLAVIC word forms are the longest, suggesting greater antiquity and genesis. This will be referred to as the rule of Abbreviation & Fraction (A&F)

#31. Consider:

                                   (Czech)

PORCUS (Latin)         PRASE            PUERCO (Spanish)

SWINE (English)         SVINĚ           PORK (Norman English)

SERRI (Basque)          SELE               SOW

VARK (Dutch)            VEPŘ

AKETZ (Basque)        KANEC (boar)

HANKA (Basque)      HNÁTA          ŠUNKA          SHANK          HAM

 

#32. Using the Abbreviation & Fraction rule (A&F) please observe the implied Slav origins of these words:

duck    KAČENA (KACHNA),

owl      SOVA,

cat       KOČKA, KOCOUR,

cow     KOROVA, KRÁVA,

trout     PSTRUH, (especially significant is the fact that all the surplus Slav letters are consonants)

cock    KOHOUT, KOKOT

elk       JELEN,

bee      ČEBELA (Slovenian    also PŠELA); VČELA,

quail     KOROPTEV.

chamois KAMZIK, GAMS.

Most people recognize the Latin word for lamb = agnus as in Agnus Dei, but few know the Old Slavonic AGNJEČIJE.

#33. Wild animals of prehistoric Western Eurasia often show Slavic etymology. Lion and LEV are obviously phonemically related as are wolf & VOLK, VLK, VUK, UK; jackal & ŠAKAL,

The Basque word for deer is BASAUNCE = wild & goat. This comes out as SRNEC or SRNČE in Czech and hart in English.

The Slavic word for hunt - LOV is the root for LEV - lion (this is especially evident through the German connection in Löwe with an umlaut over the O).

The Slavic word for howl - VUK is the root of VUK<<< VLK >>> VOLK >>> wolf while ŠTĚKAL (one which barks) is obviously the root for ŠAKAL >>> jackal (consider ŠTĚNĚ - pup).

#34. The English word same is the same as the Czech word SAME\'. In Czech and other Slavic languages, however, the word does not exist in isolation as it does in English but is a part of a broad conceptual complex dealing with individuality, gender, self, similarity, and identity. SAM in Czech means he who is alone. SAMA is she who is alone. SAME\' is that which is alone. SAMEC is male, SAMICE is female (Slovenian SAMICA, SAMKA). In some Slovenian dialects SAM, SAMA means even the master, the mistress. SAMOzrějmě is self evident. By extension it is the basis of identity itself. It is the basis of JSEM (I AM), SEM - hither. It is the grammatical basis of reflexives SE, SI, SICH etc. By convoluted extensions it may be the root of SEMENO - semen or seed. The element SYM - together is likely derived from this extensive Slavic source. SAMO, the ancient (623-658) (reputably Frankish) ruler of Slavs - demonstrably had the Slavic name for an autocrat: That sums it up!

#35. Name is a word, which appears in similar forms in all the I-E languages. In the Slavic forms the etymology suggests much more strongly that it actually means "that which is of me": JMENO, MENO, IME, IMJE, U MNE, etc. This self-awareness is captured in the Slavic word "of me" for reason or rational thought.

#36. ROZUM is the general word for rational thought or reason. The similarity between reason and ROZUM is striking even to non-linguists. But, the Slavic form is a compound word! "ROZ" means expanded or initiated. It is found in Russian words such as in the song "ROZkvetali Yabloni i Grushi.... In the German city Rostock of SIav origin ROZtok and in compound words such as ROZTAHAT, ROZKOUSAT, ROZMYSLET and the derivative ROZUMĚT (comprehend), UM is the root in words such as UMĚT, UMělec, and is the Slav word for Ability, Savvy, Know-how. OM as a mantra may come from the same origin. Consider English acumen rAZUMEN.

#37. Reason exists in virtual isolation in English. ROZum is a member of an extremely productive linguistic phenomenon in Slavic (Czech). Including ROZbalit, ROZcuchat, ROZdelit, ROZestavit, ROZfoukat, ROZhovor, ROZimat, ROZječet, ROZkrajet, ROZlit, ROZmazat, ROZnest, ROZprašit, ROZsahli, ROZtrousit. ROZumět, ROZvod, and hundreds perhaps thousands more. The prefix ROZ- lends itself very well to neologisms, so the list may be quite open-ended.

#38. Heap or hill is KOPEC or KOPA in Czech. From this we derive German Kaufman (KUPEC) a merchant who has goods by the mound-full, by the PECK (KOPEK). Also we get the word KOPULA, CIBULA (Onion) Spanish cibola.

#39. Let us examine kinship terms in I.E languages and how these are derived from ancestral Proto-SLAVIC. In Sanskrit, Germanic and Latinic languages, the words for father are pater, Vater, pata, father etc. In Basque it is aitche and in Turko-Tatar languages it is atar, ata etc, The Slavic OITEC, OČE, OTEC, ATYEC etc. seems to fit better into the generalized western Eurasian complex rather into the latter more differentiated I-E fraternity. The M element in mother is so universal that any kind of a Hakim razor is unusable. Mam is a near-universal element used in mother. In Slavic it also means "I have".

#40. BRAT, BRATR etc. in Slavic languages is of course the same as brother in English and other similar forms in other I-E languages. But in Slavic Languages it also means "to take" or "the taker". It suggests that this is in reference to the fact that this individual may take part or all of sibling\'s inheritance.

#41. SESTRA is the Slavic form of the word for sister. "SE" means "with" or "together with" and "STRA" (STaRA) means "the she of the same age or maturity". In other words, the word SESTRA in Slavic means "the she - who is of the same generation".

#42. The Slavic (especially Slovenian) kinship system is far more complex and specific than the Kinship System in other I-E languages, manifesting again the rule of A&F #30. In the Slovenian kinship system the constellation of kinship terms according to generations and/or genders represents an integrated system, which lost this integrity as it branched off into the other I-E languages. These preserve bits and pieces of the puzzle, but alas, the puzzle pieces (as with counting in monograph #2) only fit together in Slavic. The Slavic puzzle pieces are many and composed. In other I-E languages they are few and decomposed.

Slavic                                                                      English

starec; stařeca, starica, starka, stařenka               old man; old woman forms

brat(r)*                                                                     brother

sestra                                                                      sister

bratranec                                                                 male cousin

sestřenice, sestrična                                              female cousin

stric; stryc                                                               uncle (father\'s brother)

strina                                                                       uncle\'s wife, the wife of a paternal uncle

teta                                                                          aunt (paternal or maternal)

tetec                                                                        aunt\'s husband

ujec                                                                         maternal uncle; husband of maternal aunt

ujna                                                                         the wife of the maternal uncle

ujna                                                                         mother\'s sister

tata, tati, ati                                                              dad, daddy

děd, dědek (ded, dedek )**                                     grandfather

 

* cf. also: brati - to take (borrow), to read

** cf. also: dědit, dedovati - dedicate, inherit

A.Perdih assisted P.Jandacek in orchestrating the Slovenian kinship chart (above).

#43. Patronymic names such as Johnson, Thompson etc. are extremely common in I-E societies. In Celtic context they are expressed with the prefixes of MAC, Mc or FITZ. (FITZ actually implies - the bastard son of, as e.g. Fitzcallaghan, Fitzgerald, Fitzgibbon, Fitzharris, Fitzhugh, Fitzmaurice, Fitzpatrick, Fitzsimmons, etc.).

Celtic, Romance, Germanic and other names often end in "ICK", "IC" or "IK". While the element means absolutely nothing in Latin, Celtic, or Germanic, it is THE SLAVIC PATRONYMIC FORM. Thus we find it in names like IVANIČ, TOMAŽIČ, KONJEDIC, KRIVEC, KRIVIC, etc (or including the "V") in names like CZAREVIČ, KRALEVIČ etc. The fact that we find this Slavonic vestige in non-Slavic names is of profound importance. Consider these non-Slav names: Aleric, Eric, Gaiseric, Patrick, Friedrick, Americ, Derrick, Brodrick, Garrick, Aldrich, Tilllch and many other names. Thus KOVAČEVIČ (a common Slav name) could be in Celtic GOV A E FITZ. Fitzbruce would be a Slavic Borisovič.

#44. Consider the etymology of the word spouse. The Slavic element SPO, SPOU, SPOJ, SPOLU means to combine or to unite. SE is the reflexive as in SElf. Thus a spouse is the union of self to another.

#45. Kinship Systems, monographs #39 to #42 are closely related to other sociological systems. Comet is originally a Greek word meaning an Ancient Man with long white beard and hair. The wispy tails of celestial comets were so named probably because they resembled it. KMET is the Czech word for a geriarch. In Slovenian it means a farmer.

#46. Greeks and Romans habitually captured Slavic slaves (Sclavi) so that SLAV and SLAVE is in fact synonymous.

#47. In domain of social relationships consider the word vassal - one who is "bound" to serve another. This is most obviously a Slav word VAZAL or VAZAN (vezal or vezan) - Bondsman or one who is bound or tied up.

#48. Let us look at some Neolithic technologies and observe if they have Slavic roots. We have already seen that ceramics is originally Slavic (see monograph #23). Weaving is another outstanding Neolithic innovation. Notice that the words for cloth, mat, material, matter, fabric, fabricate all have lexical domains, which overlap each other. The Czech word LÁTKA means cloth and the phonemic similarity is evident. LÁTKA also means raw material (LODE such as iron ore or petroleum). But the etymology of cloth - LÁTKA is Slavic. LAŤ is lath (a thin piece of wood - such as used in weaving as a shuttle) TKA (TKAnivo) means weaving. Thus, LATŤKA means shuttle weaving and by extension all materials which are to be FABRICated into useful goods. Consider PLATECH, PLÁTNO & LÁTKA. Mat, matter and material are all evidently derived from Slavic HMOTA >> that which is touchable, tangible, palpable, from the root HMAT>> to touch.

Also note how the weaving industry relates to the binary rhyming of Slavic numerals in monograph #2.

#49. Let\'s consider not only solids but liquids as well. VODA is the Slavic word for water. In Slavic VODA is also that which leads to something. The concept is observed also in Basque (BIDE) and exits from proto-Slavic or proto-Basque into other I-E languages as water. Water was considered the conduit or conveyance. Consider words like VODOVOD, VOJVODA and VOJVODINA.

#50. Vino is the Italian (& in other Romance languages) word for wine. But consider that the etymology may be from Slavic (Cz) VY ŇAT = to ex crete as in the process of squeezing out liquid from grapes. Vignette (VY ŇAT) still has two definitions: extract & young wine!

#51. The (CZ) Slavic word milk is MLÉKO and it is very obvious that the Germanic and Slavic forms are related. MLÉČNÉ (CZ) milky contains the Spanish-like element leche. There are two unequal explanations for this. Either Czech borrowed one word from Spanish (Latin) and the other word from Germanic or else, the Spanish and the English derived from the Slavic form. This is sort of like saying: Since birds and mammals share physical features with reptiles >>> reptiles are a cross between mammals and birds or else, reptiles are the foundation stock for both mammals and birds.

#52. While studying liquids and drinks, consider again mead, monograph #13 and 14.

#53. While studying wine, #50, consider grapes and raisins. (Together with wine and vinegar they are the products of early Viticulture). Raisins - ROZINKY the dried HROZINKY >> bunches of grapes. Ostensibly, one needs bunches of grapes to make raisins.

#54. Vineyard is obviously from VINOGRAD / VINOHRAD (GRAD becomes garden)

#55. Vinegar is OCET >> the root word for acid.

#56. There are many peoples in ancient and not so ancient Europe who were considered to be Celtic or Germanic but who almost certainly were Slavic. The DRUIDS are a prime example. Most people think of DRUIDS as tree worshiping Celts who built large megalithic monuments (like Stone Henge) on the British Isles, in Gaul, on the Iberian Peninsula, on the islands of the Mediterranean and elsewhere beyond the presumed extends of the Slavic populations. Please consider the following points.

A. The diagnostic feature of DRUlDS was tree worship.

B. In Latin there was no sound (phoneme) for V. Romans only had the U sound (phoneme), which they represented with the grapheme (letter) V.

C. Thus, in Latin DRUID is written DRVID.

D. The common Slavic word for tree (or wood) is DRVO or DREVO or DŘEVO.

E. Significantly, in antiquity south-east of the Poljane (Polish "Field Dwellers") there lived the DREVLJANE - the "Forest Dwellers". Thus, DRUlDS are obviously (knock on wood) SLAVIC. (Notice "tree" hidden inside DREevo).

#57. Traditionally the Vandals are considered a Germanic migratory nation, which originated near the Baltic Sea. Quite likely they were the SLOV ANDALS. The leader of the Vandals was Gajseric. His name is rather typically Slavic and is similar to Slavic names like Gasperič.

#58. If the Slavs lived only in the Pripyat River marshes until the 6th century AD, why would the Roman name for the Baltic Sea be Mare Suabicum >> written SVABICVM >> {SLAVICUM} = The Slavic Sea?

#59. Do keep in mind that the Modern English sounds of "V", "W\', "U\' and "L" merge in the Polish and Slovak Palatalized L-sound  (Ł resp. Ľ). This is still evident in Slavic SVOBODA, SLOBODA. Consider that the Sueves were a people closely related to the sloVANDALS. While the Vandals eventually settled in Spanish Andalusia (Vandalusia), the Sueves gave their name to the Swiss and to the Schwabish >>> SLAVISH. The SVENSKA (Swedes) are likely the SloVENSKA!

#60. Let\'s consider some etymology concerning concepts of war and peace, friendship and enemosity. It is very evident that words like Freund, Freud, friend and PŘÍTEL - PRIJATEL are all related and that the most conspicuous difference is the Germanic preference for "F" where Slavs favor "P". The etymology of these is absolutely Slavic. 

We can dissect PRI-JATel in the following way. PRI in Slavic languages means "with" or "near-by". JAT in Slavic languages means "to take" or "to embrace" (as in OBJAT). Thus, PRI-JAT-el is the one who is acceptable. By the same analogy, NEpritel (NEPRIJATEL) "enemy" is one who is UN-embraceable, UnAcceptable.

#61. ÚTOK is the Czech (Slavic) word for attack. The etymology is derived from the Slavic TOK (flow), which is also found in words such as POTOK (brook), PŘÍTOK. etc. ÚTOK is also in balance with ÚTĚK (escape). Thus, symmetry is evident in the Slavic words for attack and escape (retreat), and not in the English.

#62. VICTOR is víTĚz in Slavic languages. The etymologies for these words are Slavic. VI or VY means to outdo and TĚŽIT means to weigh. Thus, VITEZIT means to outweigh or overwhelm.

# 63. POKOJ is the Slavic word for peace and the relationship of the two is obvious. Po in Slavic means after and KOJ in Czech is suckle. Thus the etymology reveals that PO KOJ is the tranquility, which a baby has after nursing. Perhaps there is a link between lactate > PLACATE << UPOKOJIT.

#64. Let us consider the etymology of the word horizon. The Slavic word for mountains is GORI, or HORY, HORI. The suffix ZON in Horizon is similar to the Slavic suffix ZOR as in obZOR, vZOR. poZOR is the Czech (Slav) word for scene. Thus horizon (horizor) is the mountain-scene on the OBZOR >> (roundabout-scene). Consider also the relationship between OBZOR >> observe.

#65. Above the horizon are found the features of the sky. Conspicuously the sun, moon, stars, clouds, comets etc. are called by similar terms in the various Indo-European languages. That comet is named after a grizzled old man with long flowing hair and beard, which is called a KMET in Slavic was pointed out in #45.

#66. English moon and Czech MĚSÍC share the " M". MĚSÍC, however is related to the MĚNA, ZMĚNA - change. Changes of the Phases of the moon are the unique features of this "Changer" in the sky. MENA is still evident in moon.

#67. The nebulous clouds drift across the NEBE (Slavic Heaven).

#68. Venus is a Planet, which is named for the Roman Goddess Venus.

This Roman Goddess is the allegorical figure of love and personifies femininity. The Slavic goddess who is synonymous with Venus is VESNA. The phonemic likeness of these two mythological characters is overwhelming. The common wisdom always had been that the primitive Slavs usurped the Roman goddess from the civilized classical civilization. There is a problem with this point of view. The etymology of Venus - VESNA is purely Slavic. "VES" is the Slavic element, which implies universality and "ONA" means she. Thus VES-ONA literally translates as "The Universal She". As such she is the feminine counterpart to the Hindic god Vishnu (VES-ON) >> "The Universal He". VESNA continues to be a common Slavic name for women and girls.

#69. A roasting surface in Czech is called ROŽEŇ. Thus, we can see that ROŽEŇ and roast are words, which are related as cognates as well as phonemically. As we see in monograph #36, 37, ROZ means "expanded" or "initiated" (as in kindled) and ŽEŇ refers to fire. Thus ROŽEŇ contains inescapable Czech (Slavic) etymology usurped totally by the English word roast. The words ŽEŇ and OHEŇ, OGENJ, and ignite and Hindu Agni all share in this constellation of concepts and phonemic family.

#70. By further extension ŽEN may be related to DEN, DZIEN, DAN (the Slavic forms of the words for day and the early part of day - dawn, the time of sun\'s ignition.

#71. ŽEN is a very broad root in Slavic languages and brings together a very wide range of concepts including fire & ignition, womanhood, chase & pursuit, harvest and others. From ŽENA, the Slav word for woman we gave gene, polygeny, genetics, genus, generation. Virgin (VĚR ŽENA) is a faithful or true woman in Slav Languages. On some deep level the concepts of fecundity, plenitude of harvest and progeny, the generation of fire are all deeply rooted in Slavic languages in the root of ŽEN.

#72. The Slavic word for "god" is "BOG" or "BOH". The Slav word for "rich" or \'wealthy" is BOGAT or BOHATÝ. Thus, the Slavic word for wealthy is synonymous with "GODLY". At one time I had speculated that the German Gott or English God were derived from the Slavic boGAT. For a long time I considered that idea too absurd to share with even the most supportive friends. Recently, I learned that the Slovenian word for "devil" is HUDIČ (pronounced in Czech "CHUDIČ"). The Czech word for impoverished is CHUDY. Thus, between the two Slavic forms, the word for wealthy is the same as godly, and the word for impoverished is the same as diabolical. Again this is a profound example of Symmetry found in Slav languages and corresponding absence of symmetry in the other I-E languages.

#73. Let us examine universal human needs of breathing, drinking, eating, clothing. housing, warmth and the psychological needs. While I can not prove that the Slavic forms are more ancient than the other I-E forms concerning breath, I can point out that there is a close link in I-E languages between breath & spirit. This is evident in spirit and respiration and DUCH - DECH. When it comes to drinking, in Czech the word for drink - PÍT rhymes with the Czech word for eat - JÍST as well as the English eat. "Drink" does not share phonemic elements with eat, PÍT, JÍST and therefore lacks the symmetry of the original forms.

#74. Thus, JÍST the Czech word (to) eat not only rhymes with the English form but is in fact a part of a very extensive family of infinitive verbs (a Gestalt) which is integrated in the Slavic form but DISintegrates in the Germanic. JÍST belongs with words like RÝT (to write) scribe, ČÍST (to read), PÍT (to drink), MÍT (to have), BÍT (to beat), BÝT (to be), SÍT (to seed), LÍT (to pour), VÍT (to howl), JÍT (to go), KRÝT (to cover). While we can see the direct Slavic correlations with the English write, beat, be, seed - see that in English these exist as random puzzle pieces, while in the Slavic forms the puzzle is kept together and reveals the overall picture!

#75. Clothing was covered very extensively in monograph #48, showing conclusively that all the words dealing with weaving, cloth, material etc. are ultimately of Slav origin. To the long litany of "tailor made" arguments in #48, I would like to add that SUKNO the ancient Slav word for cloth is found in Basque as soinekotu.

#76. The Slovenian word for "house" is "HIŠA". The similarity is profound. The Czech form of the word is CHÝŠE. CHÝŠE, however, is an abode somewhat less than a house. CHÝŠE is more of a lair or den, such as would be used by hunters & gatherers for one or few nights, or by a wild animal. Thus in the Slavic context CHÝŠE, HIŠA, house takes us to the very beginning of architecture in the Upper Palaeolithic. Among the oldest of human abodes are circular structures made of branches, or later of mammoth tusks, bones and skins, which would be called CHÝŠE.

#77. Among the earliest of dwellings were Dome-Shaped Yurt-like structures. In much of Slav mind set the words house and dome are synonymous as DOM. We see the element in the word DOMestic.

#78. Roof and the Slavic KROV are the same thing. But "KROV" actually means "cover" as in poKRÝvka or KRÝT.

#79. DVER or DVEŘE (DURI) is the Slav equivalent of door. In the Slavic it is related to words such as DVOR (courtyard) and OTVOR (opening). OTvor is the opposite of TVOR (creation). Thus OTVOR is an anti-creation (un-doing). To open in Czech is OTVIRAT and gate is VRATA. While door, opening, gate, uncreating and courtyard are disjointed concepts and phonemically unrelated words in English, their Czech equivalents form a natural family and synergetically validate each other in a gestalt.

#80. Love and German Liebe are words, which are related to a far more extensive family of words dealing with love, liking and kissing in Slavic languages. These include LÍBEZNÁ, LÍBIT, LÍBAT, POLIBEK, etc. related to labial acts.

#81. Crotch in English is obviously derived from Slav (Czech) KRÁČET (stride), ROZKROK (groin), inseam.

#82. OStrov is a common Slavic word for Island. OSTRO is sharp in Slavic. Thus, we are talking about land, which is cut off. Evidently the word fits in with others dealing with sharpness such as English strop, and oSTŘÍHAT and TRIm. OSTROUHAT (words dealing with grating, i.e. sharp points cutting into surfaces) mentioned first in monograph #16.

#83. Truss (the pointed, sharp and strong) part of roof << OSTRESlE, OSTŘEŠÍ, STŘECHA. See also how that refers to #3 as well as other parts of house.

#84. The Czech word PLOUT is the same as the English float. But the Czech form is derived from the word PLAVAT (swim). There is no such English etymology for float.

#85. PLAv in some Slav languages also means the color blue (as in swim) In other Slav languages PLAv means pale.

#86. PO is an element, which exists as a prefix in Czech and other Slavic languages. While in the Slavic languages it means after or with it enters English and other languages without the etymological content. It is evident in words like POKOJ >> peace and POZOR >>> attention. POKOJ is the tranquility which a baby experiences after (PO) suckle (KOJ). (see #63). POZOR (PO) after & (ZOR) view is attention or looking after. (as in OBZOR >> horizon} (Consider OBZOR - observe) (see #64)

#87. Using the prefix PO and the suffix SLAT (send) we have the word POSLAT (to send after). From this Slav concept are derived such words as postal, posting and apostle.

#88. Applying the same logic as above we get posse from POSÁDKA.

#89. Pagan is POHAN >> PO HANba (HAMBA) (one who is of shame, not of virtue).

#90. POTOPA is ultimately the foundation for Greek Potamus (River) as in Mesopotamia, Hippopotamus and even baptism. POTOK see also ŮTOK ŮTĚK as in #61.

#91. Past is conspicuously related to the Slavic element PO - after.

#92. POKAL is the Slovenian and Russian word for cup or goblet. It appears in other Indo-European languages in similar forms such as POHAR, PEHAR, beaker, Becher, and even in Basque as pegar. We already know that PO is after (or in the style of). Thus we can see that POKAL is the shape made for the hand from ČER-mih (Stone Mix}(ceramic) a KALUP (cup). Hence KALICH (chalice).

#93. MĚŘIT and VÁŽIT is how you say (to) measure and weigh in Czech. The similarity of the words is striking. But in this case again we see an internal order based on the symmetry of rhyme in the Slavic form, which is lacking in English.

#94. Volume is from VAL - Slavic to roll - something of such substantial size and weight as to require rolling. VAL or VEL is used in Slavic to imply greatness. It is found in words such as VELRYBA, VELMOC, VELMI, VELEHRAD, VELVYSLANEC, VELlKÝ, etc. It is found by extension in words like whale, Valhalla and value. VAL rhymes with and is in opposition to MAL >> small. This is yet another example of Slavic Symmetry.

#95. It is easy to see the relations between saddle and SEDLO or between paddle and PÁDLO and one may wonder who borrowed from whom. It we examine the word PÁDLO we see that it is derived from the word PAD - The Slavic word for plunge or dip or fall. Thus a PÁDLO is a plunger or a dipper. The etymology is Slavic!! PÁDLO belongs to an extensive family of nouns such as RÁDLO, SÁDLO, MÁSLO, KORMIDLO, ŠÍDLO, VESLO, etc. VESLO, PÁDLO, KORMIDLO and BIDLO are all long wooden members for propelling or steering a vessel.

#96. Jail is obviously related to the Czech word ŽALÁŘ. The etymology of both jail and ŽALÁŘ is Slavic "ŽAL" - pathos, sadness, remorse or repentance; ŽALOVAT is to accuse.

#97. Light in Czech is SVĚTLO but the word for torch is LOUČE as (lucid). SVĚT is Universe thus SVĚTLO is the universal source of light. One who is holy (wHOLE) is SVĚTI or SVATÝ, hence in union with The Universal. Thus saintly (sanct) is from the same Slav source as VESna Venus. Thus we see that ancient concepts profound and profane alike come to us from a distant Slavic linguistic tradition.

#98. Cruciform and round shapes are so dissimilar in shape that they are the natural choices for playing tic tac toe. Yet in Czech KŘÍŽIT and KROUŽIT form a rhyming pair of symmetry.

#99. Diva is a very acane and essotheric way of referring to a woman or a girl in English. It is the common (at times vulgate) form in all the Slavic languages. DĚV is the root of both view and girl (pleasant features). It is also the root for wild. Let\'s hear it for Wild, Beautiful Women!

#100. The similarity between OBZOR and observe was mentioned in monographs #64 and #86. There are very few other English words, which use the element OB to represent round about. Obligate (OBVÁZAT), obese and oblong (OBLOUK) are some obvious examples. In Slavic languages the OB element is far more productive as in OBAL, OBIČEJ, OBJED, OBJEM, OBRUČ, OBŘEZAT, OBEC, OBKRÁJET. OBDLOUHÉ, OBILÍ, OBDELNÍK, OBRAZ, OBČAS, OBHÁJIT, OBUVA, OBHOSPODAŘIT, OBŽALOVAT, OBČAN, OBYVATEL, OBNOVEN, OBNOŠEN, etc.

#101. Get a load of this. The English word load is NÁKLAD in Czech. The Czech form of the word is far more productive. Consider all these as belonging to the genus: záKLAD, podKLAD, poKLAD, příKLAD, odKLAD, doKLAD, rozKLAD, sKLAD, KLÁDa. KLADně, KLADno, KLADivo, sKLADatel. sKLADiště and obKLAD. Again, here, the word NÁKLAD is a part of a composition, while load is part of (later) DEcomposition.

#102. When something is miserable we refer to it as "one being frosted". The Czech concept MRZÍ is MRAZÍ - "getting frosted" Hence Misery.

#103. VDOVA is the Slav word for widow (spelled WDOWA in Polish, UDOUA in some Slovenian dialects). Obviously, these are two forms of an identical word. In Czech there are two forms of the word to marry. When a man gets wed the word is "ŽENIT" - "womanning", see monograph #71 ŽENA & related words. When a woman gets wed the word is "VDÁVAT > "to give in". Thus we can see the constellation of concepts and words: wed << VDÁVAT >> VDOVA >> WDOWA >> widow has a purely Slavic etymology. This monograph is related to monographs #39-43.

There are great many words in Slavic languages, which are similar to English ones. It is very easy to find the commonality. It is far more challenging to prove (as I have in the last 100 + examples) that the a priori source is Slavic.

Acknowledgement
The author appreciates the criticism of particular monographs and suggestions for their improvements by Prof. Anton Perdih.

 




Petr Jandáček 2001, 127 La Senda Rd. LOS ALAMOS New Mexico USA 87544-3819; Tel:(505)672 9562 Ta e-poštni naslov je zaščiten proti smetenju. Potrebujete Javascript za pogled. Ta e-poštni naslov je zaščiten proti smetenju. Potrebujete Javascript za pogled.