Author: Robert Petrič
Proofreading: Petr Jandáček, Mojca Marinšek

In the studies of ancient European history there is virtually no mention of the "Veneti". One may wonder if this is a mere oversight or if the omissions are conscious or even deliberate. Who (in fact) were the Veneti? Which territories did they occupy? Were they in reality the ancestors of present day Slovenians? Were they the ancestors of other Slavic or non-Slavic Europeans? These and other questions will be explored and answered in the following articles. Here in the introductory article you may find some of the answers, others will follow in the article "Veneti, where had they gone?".

Triglav, the Venetic
symbol of trinity

Triglav

Some time ago (from a co-worker) I received the book "VENETI - FIRST BUILDERS OF EUROPEAN COMMUNITY". My initial reaction was one of disbelief. How could Slovenians (a clearly Slavic People) have commonality with the Veneti of Italy? My original disbelief was hasty and based on my ignorance of the people called Veneti. Additionally, the content of the book was very different from what I anticipated. I came to a point where I started studying history books, trying to confirm my opinion. Soon I had to concede that I had to abandon the old paradigms and start thinking logically and to broaden my horizons.


WHY VENETI

 

In school we are perhaps just incidentally introduced to ancient Central European inhabitants like the Illyrians, Celts and the Veneti. Nobody tells us that the Veneti once inhabited the regions of present day Brittany, an extensive area of northern Europe, as well as ancient Paphlagonia, the Black Sea regions (north coast of Asia Minor) and Illyricum (the Balkans). Venedi were also a people who lived on the Baltic slope near the mouth of the Vistula River. Historians, also, make no effort to perceive the far-flung
Veneti as single (unified) ethnic entity. These historians fail to "connect the dots" of the Veneti locales because they are not trying to derive their historically mentioned name from the etymology (word origins) or "root-name". This is why the original settlement area of this Veneti nation is not properly defined. What is more, it seems that in world history literature the ethnic name "Veneti" is somehow kept in the background. Greeks, Celts, Etruscans, Romans, Illyrians and Germans are studied in substantial detail, but the Veneti are ignored. Some scientists even claim, disregarding evidence, that Veneti were only a mythological or mythical nation. This means that they have been made up! Indeed? If this is so, then where do all these numerous names come from (like Vends, Vinds, Enets, Henets etc.)? The settlements of the Veneti are almost all over Europe! Why are the Veneti being ignored by official science? Why do they remain a "mysterious" nation, despite overwhelming evidence for their existence in so many places? They even left a literary script and many inscriptions. Let us first examine the "mysteriousness" of their literacy.

Image
A Venetic traveler
(Pa 1 LLV, Museo
Civico di Padova
 

VENETIC INSCRIPTIONS


Did you happen to know that the Veneti were literate, and that they usually wrote from right to left (like Hebrew) or the opposite of the direction of these lines. Did you ever see their script? At first glance such questions may appear pointless, and yet, very few people can answer with a "yes". Why is this information not being taught in elementary school when pupils first learn about ancient Greece and Rome? Perhaps the experts in the fields of ancient civilizations were waiting for the creation of this website ...

It is well known that the Veneti had left us many inscriptions, yet, surprisingly, even respected historians are not making a serious effort to catalog and/or count these writings properly. Even in a single source - like for instance, the Encyclopaedia Britannica we can find conflicting reports. But, do not lose heart! Before we try to inventory some 200 to 400 (presumed to be) "Venetic" samples we must study the criteria and the diagnostic features which designate them as "Venetic". We must accept the fact that before the "standardized Roman orthography" ancient European populations used many forms of related writing systems. The question is: how does one differentiate between Venetic runic inscriptions and Celtic or Germanic runic inscriptions? With the imprecise differentiations between the many runic scripts we may be able to expand the number of genuine Venetic scripts from 400 up to thousands of inscriptions.
 
 
 
 
 
 
Image
The Venetic script from the Adriatic region

 

 

VENETIC CULTURAL HERITAGE

 

Where are the archeological sites of the Venetic culture? Many archeologists (and historians) recognize European Alpine regions to be Celtic. If that is so - where do we find the Venetic sites?

Image


First of all, it is reasonable to assume that NOT all those sites are Celtic. It is known that the Celts (especially the Central European Celts) were a transitional population. The Boii (for instance, in Bohemia) were ostensibly the ruling (Celt) class, but the general population was Slavic around the 5th and 6th C. A.D. It is therefore counterintuitive to accept the majority of Alpine or Central European sites as "Celtic". There is a likelihood that many of these sites are Venetic. As indicated by ethnographies of contemporary groups, the Celts would have assimilated culture, language and genetic material of the populations they encountered. Lastly, the physical presence of trade goods can be misleading. Two thousand years from now an archaeologist may conclude that Slovenia was largely populated by the French, since 23% of the cars are Renaults, Citroens and Peugeots. It could escape the archeologist's notice that there was a big Renault factory in Novo mesto. Similarly, future archeologists could conclude that there were 20% Germans (VW, Opel ...), 16% Asians (Toyota, Honda, Mazda ...), 12% Serbians (Zastava), 8% Italians (Fiat, Alfa ...), who were known to be most powerful (Lamborghini, Ferrari ...) and finally 6% Czechs (Škoda), Who merely assimilated and spoke a patois of Slovene-English full of slang and Serbisms. Future archeologists could concede that there were some Slovenes present (Adria caravan factory), but these were a primitive people (since they did not use engines) and were powered (dragged) by other nations. Of course this will have been nonsense!
In the caves of France (which were occupied by Paleolithic hunters) we find seashells both from the Atlantic and the Mediterranean. We must not underestimate the role of truck in antiquity.
 


Image
The Venetic customs, presented on Situlas
(Situla Benvenutti - Museo Nazionale Atestino,
Situla of Vače - Slovenian National Museum)

In a way similar is the argument of some historians, that the ruins of Christian churches which date back to the 6th Century* (Common Era) are prove positive that the Slavs are late-comers to Central Europe (arriving in the 6th Century). They assume that no Slavs were Christianized before the 8th Century. The Old paradigm, which suggests the late arrival of Slavs, is suspect at best, and the "scientific method" is absurd. Here our doubt in such established theories can be legitimate.

 

Image

 

*According to the study by Franz Glaser (Frühes Christentum im Alpenraum) , these 8 ruins of churches in Slovenia were not places of refuge but only Roman military outposts with associated communities.

"Venetic horseman" on the back side
of the Slovene Identity card

Image

 

As unbelievable as it may seem, the ancient European cultural heritage remains largely undiscovered. It is certain that the Veneti were the bearers of different cultural traditions. Moreover, they were indirectly connected to the Urnfied culture, the Corded Pottery Culture of Switzerland (The Vinelzer Style) and to the Hallstatt Culture. For that reason archeologists had to classify the majority of the pre-Roman sites as "Celtic", although Celts could not have lived all across Europe. This brings us to two possible conclusions: either this indicates extensive "truck" (trade of goods) {TRG} or a completely erroneous archeological interpretation. In any case, the Veneti were bearers of the urn burials, and the art of the situla. They were also focused on horses, which is evident by several equestrian sculptures (the motif of a "Venetic Horseman" is used on the back of the contemporary Slovenian Identity Card). It is my observation that many scientists emphasize philosophy, science, martial skills, architecture, mythology and such pursuits which defined the ancient cultures of the Eastern Mediterranean. But in the Alpine Region of Central Europe the emphasis was on pragmatic "hands-on" agrarian pursuits and farming acumen. The culture of the Alps was rural and (when possible) tranquil. "Arcane" and "abstract" philosophy is still unpopular with the "Mountain People".
 
 
 
Albrecht Dürer: Una Villana vindisch
(British Museum, London)

Image
 

We should not forget about the unique Venetic cultural feature of respecting women. Vendisch women undoubtedly received more respect and had more rights than women had in other ancient European cultures (not to mention the near-eastern Cultures). The agricultural Veneti did not pursue the "Classical Hero" warrior mentality so typical of seafaring and mercantile cultures. In Sachsenspiegel we can read the following: "They say that all Vendisch women are free." I assume there is no need to particularly stress how exceptional this was in those times ... However, the Vendisch women's freedom most likely had a negative effect on the birth rate of these people. In such scenario fecundity likely became secondary to social status interests, and the higher birth rate of their neighbors resulted in loss of their territory. The Veneti were known for their generosity, hospitality, simplicity and the respect for what we would now call basic civil rights (with few "Vandallic" exceptions), as we can read in several chronicles. They had already practiced democracy, in a way like the Greeks did (but with less pomp and more efficiency), which also might have influenced harmfully on the preservation of their culture.
 
 
 
 
 
 
Four headed Svantevid
Image
 

RELIGION & MYTHOLOGY

What about religion and mythology? We can affirm that the Veneti had several deities, some of which were known by multiple names. As many encyclopedic sources indicate it was particularly their pagan beliefs (PAGAN from the Latin PAGANUS = a rural dweller) that exerted influence on the acceptance of some religious concepts like the trinity, immortal soul, about the cult of Mariology, and the symbol of crucifix in the tenet of major christian churches? (Contrary to common belief, these concepts don't seem to be Biblical, but rather pagan.)* Antiquities experts link these concepts to Babylon and Egypt, but they do not mention, which culture they passed through directly (and perhaps originally)! We find numerous remnants of three headed deities all over Europe! Also, the highest mountain peak in Slovenia:Triglav (literally the three head), suggests that in antiquity there was at that location a pagan temple dedicated to that Slavic deity (and not only three mountanious peaks). We even find more similarly named mountains and places throughout Europe. The Prussian Monarch - Friedrich II. (18th C.) states that the Vandals (or Wends in Brandenburg) worshipped a god named TRIGLAW and that it was possible to see his portrait at Harlungsberg near Brandenburg (Denkwürdigkeiten zur Geschichte des Hauses Brandenburg/Die Religion zur Zeit des Heidentums). This deity had three heads [similar to the tradition of the trinitarity sculptures in roman-catholic churches#] and these had dominion over the sky, earth and the underworld. Interestingly the French Larousse Encyclopedia of Mythology notes one similar triad in the Mesopotamian area: "The universe was divided into three regions each of which became the domain of a god. Anu's share was the sky. The earth was given to Enlil. Ea became the ruler of the waters. Together they constituted the triad of the Great Gods." Additionaly names like Trumuskat, Tribuzijat and Trumuzijat (Slovene: Threeman and Threedeity) were found among the Alpine Venetic inscriptions. Many of the inscriptions indicate the worship of the goddess Reitiia. It is well known that the god Belin was worshipped moreover in the Central Europe, and the four headed Svantevid or Svetovid was venerated rather in the North. It is very probable that the oldest churches, consecrated to saint Vid, were built exactly on the area of the previous pagan temples of Svantevid. It is an indisputable fact that the Gothic Cathedral in Prague, which is dedicated to Svaty Vit (Vitus, see photo) was so named to replace the worship of the pagan Svantevid/Svetovid. Many other churches in the region are dedicated to St. Vitus for the same reason and were often built on the foundations of the pagan temples of the four- headed deity. Read more ...

Image
God Belin on a Coin
Image

The Cathedral of St. Vitus
(Svaty Vit) in Prague


*The New Encyclopædia Britannica (Micropædia, 1976, Zv. X, str. 126); New Catholic Encyclopedia (1967, Zv. XIV, str. 299); Encyclopedia Americana (1956, Zv. XXVII, str. 294L)
New Catholic Encyclopedia (1967, Zv. XIII, str. 452, 454); Presbyterian life, 1. maj 1970, str. 35)
Andrew Greeley, The making of the Popes 1978, ZDA 1979; str.227, E. O. James, The Cult of the Mother-Goddes, New York 1959, str. 207

G. S. Tyack, The Cross in Ritual, Architecture, and Art, London 1904, str. 226; The Companion Bible, Dodatek št. 162; The Non-Christian Cross, str. 133-141.

#Collegiate of Montréal, France; Museo Bardini, Florence, Italy; Musée des Beaux-Arts de Troyes, France; Church of Tagnon, France ...


Image
A Trinity sculpture,
Italy, 6th Century C. E.
Image

A Three-Headed
sculpture,
Carinthia

Image

Museo Bardini, Florence,
Italy, 15th Century

Image

Norway, 13th Century

Image

Church of Tagnon,
France, 14th Century

Image

Collegiate of Montréal,
France

Archeologists have recently discovered numerous monumental temples in the regions of present day Austria, Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Germany. They believe that the finds are older than Stonehenge and the Pyramids, and that they represent the oldest European civilisation. Were these finds in any way connected to the following cultures, found on this territorry? Can tey be connected to the Veneti?

Goldhorn, the mythological symbol
of the Greater Alpine region

Image

 

EVIDENCE OF VENETIC PRESENCE THROUGH ANCIENT PLACE NAMES (TOPONYMS)

The Julian Alps were sometimes called the Venetic Alps.
(Ammian Marcelino: "alpium juliarum, quas venetas appellabant antiquitas".)

Špik, Venetic Alps
Image


The neighboring Dolomites have been named
Venetic mountains by the Roman soldiers.
The same name was aplied to the Carpathian mountains.

The Dolomites,
Venetic mountains
Image


Carpathians, Venetic mountains
Image

Centuries ago the hills in present-day eastern Germany were known as the Venetic Hills. Hohe Tauern, a mountain chain in Austria used to be called the Venetic Mountain Chain (Montes Veneti, Windische Berge), its western part is still called the Venediger Gruppe, with its highest peak: Grossvenediger.

Venediger Gruppe,
Grossvenediger
ImageImage

The region Veneto and the city of Venezia (Venice)
are directly and indirectly connected to the Veneti.

Venice - Venezia
Image

Vindobona was the ancient Roman name for Vienna (The Czech name for Vienna is Viden).

The Roman base at Vindobona
Image

Wen(e)denstock, Wendenwasser, Wendenalm, Wendengletscher etc. are names referring to Vends in Switzerland. The present-day region of Windisch, which served as a Roman military base, was known as Vindonissa.

Vindonissa - Windisch
Image

The upper part of Lake Constance (Bodensee) bordering Austria, Germany and Switzerland, was once called the Venetic Lake (Lacus Venetus). It was mentioned by Pomponius Mela.
(Pomponius Mela, De Corographia III, 24- 44 around 44 B. C.)

Lake Constance - The Venetic lake
Image

German lands - Sachsen, Bavaria, Brandenburg and Mecklenburg (Pomerania) are mentioned as Vendic lands (W(i)endland, lat. Vindelicia). In Latin sources old Hanseatic Cities (for example Lübeck) are referred to as: "urbs sclavica" (Slavic Cities), and on hanseatic maps as "urbs vandalica" (Vendic Cities).

Brandenburg and Mecklenburg, both former Vendic areas;
Bavaria, Vendic land; Latin: Vindelicia
ImageImageImage

 

Until the 15th Century maps referred to the territory between the Elbe and the Weichsel Rivers (Sclavania) asVandalia orWendland (the map of Claudius Clavus, Firenze 1467 ).

Sachsen, Vendic land
Image


Not so long ago, Poland's northern part (coastal Pomerania) was called Vandalia, whereas Vindland was fow the Scandinavians used to designate the proximal Baltic Slavic territory. (Saga of Olaf Trygveson, the first Norse king).

Vandalia - Pomerania
Image

The Baltic Sea was once called the Venetic Sea (Venedos kolpos, Wendile mare), but we also know of the Venetic gulf on the northern Adriatic. Russia is called Venäjä in Finnish and Venemaa in Estonian. Additionally, the words for Russia and/or Russian language appear in Estonian as venäläinen and venelane and Old Prussian as vena (from wenidiz or wenediz).

The Baltic sea - The Venetic sea
Image

In Brittany (the north-western peninsula of France) we find the Venetic Gulf and the Island of Vindilis. In antiquity according to Julius Caesar (De Bello Gallico) this land was dominated by the Veneti. It used to be a commercial connection to the British Venedotia (Gwynedd).

The Veneti were the dominant class in Brittany
Image

Andalucía of Spain is most likely named after the Vandals or Veneti. On the map by Anville, from 1761, we see the older designation Vandalitia. The (mountainous) Granada was known as Agarnata. The elements: Kar, Kor, Gor, Gar, are the usual way of indicating mountains or mountain groups in Central Europe.

Vandalitia, now Andaluzija
ImageImage

 

A part of Slovenian Country between the rivers Mura and Raba was called Vendség (Vendic Country) by the Hungarians, whereas the Slavic speakers who inhabited the territory were called Vends (lat. Vandals).

Vendic Country in Hungary
mt_ignore

Lastly, a territory roughly analogous to present-day Slovenia had been defined as the Land of the Vineds or Venets (Marca Vinedorum) in the eastern Alps. As late as the reign of Franz Joseph I. a part of Slovenia was designated as Windische Mark.

Slovenia, the Land of Vineds
Image

There are thousands of other place names across the face of Europe like Veneto, Wenden, Winden ..., which help us to connect the dots and understand the continuum of the Venetic identity. More ...

 

HISTORICAL QUOTES

Homer (9th century B. C.) records in Iliad[1] the Veneti in Paphlagonia as Enetoi (the Greek did not know the letter v).
Herodotus, historian (5th century B. C.), writes about Illyrian Veneti, about Veneti living around the lower stream of the Danube, and finally about Veneti inhabiting the Northern Adriatic territory.[2]
Polibus (2th century B. C.) added to the description of events during the years 219 to 146 B. C., following: »The land to the Adriatic coast was mastered by another, very old folk, named Veneti ... They speak a different language as the Celts, but what their habbits and their clothing is concearned, they differ from them only slightly /.../ Veneti and Gonomani were persuaded by Roman representatives, to join the Romans«.[3]
Demetrius of Scepsis, grammarian, archeologist (2nd century B. C.), mentions the capital of the Veneti (Enea) in Troas (Asia Minor).[4]
Strabo, historian, geographer (1st century B. C.), designates the (V)eneti in Paphlagonia as the major tribe moving towards Thrace (nowadays territory of Bulgaria) after the fall of Troy (Asia Minor).[5]
Julius Caesar, historian (1st century B. C.), reports about the Veneti living in Gaul (Brittany).[6]
Titus Livy, historian (1st century B. C.), describes how Veneti came up to the coasts of the (northern) Adriatic, also mentioning the river "Timava", which flows through the duskiness of the Škocjan caves (Slovene Ti(e)ma means the darkness).[7]
Pliny the Elder (1st century B. C.) talks about an extensive land, named Eningia, where Sarmatians, Venedi, etc. lived. He also mentions the Venetulani in central Italy.[8]
Tacitus, historian (1st century C. E.), places Veneti on the border of Suebia together with Peucinians, Sarmatians and Fenns.[9]
Ptolemy, geographer (2nd century), mentions exceedingly large nations - the (O)venedi on the whole coastal region of the Venetic gulf (The Baltic sea).[10]
Emperor Julian (4th century) presents evidence of Veneti, who settled in the proximity of Aquilea (Italy).[11]
Jordanes, historian (6th century), notes a numerous nation of Veneti, populating the area between north of Dacia (now Romania) and up to the Visla delta (the Baltic sea).  [12]
In Vita s. Columbani[13] (7th century) (the Alpine) Veneti, who call themselves Slavs, are recorded (»termini Venetorum qui et Sclavi dicuntur«).

In the Fredegarius Chronicle (7th century) we can read about the Slavs designated as Vinedi.[14]
Adam of Bremen, chronicler (11th century), mentions an extensive land Sclavania, settled by Winulians, who used to be called Vandals. The land could have been ten times bigger then Sachsen, especially if we include Bohemians (Czechs) and Polians, since they are not distinguishable from each other, nor by their appearance, or by their language.[15]
In Denmark (from latest 12th century and until the year 1972) the title "King of the Vends" (Latin Vandals) was used for enthroning Danish kings.
Helmold, historian (12th century), records a vast Slavic country, where the ancient Vandals are now named Wends or Winulians.[16]
Wincenty Kadłubek / Vincent of Cracow, historian (12th century), affirms that Poles used to be called Vandals.[17]
Heimskringla, the Chronicle of Norwegian kings(12th century) mentions, that the Black Sea »divides three parts of the earth, from which is the eastern part called Asia, whereas the western part is by some called Europe, and by others Enea.«[18]
Miersuae Chronicon (13th century) equates Vandals with Slavs.[19]
Albert Crantz, historian (15th century), reports about Wandals or Wends, and says that they are Slavs, living as a single nation from Poland to Dalmatia. According to him, the mighty acts in France, Spain and Africa are ascribed to the Wends.[20]
Marcin Bielski (16th century) says that Wandals was once the name for Slavs.[21]
The Pomeranian chronicler Thomas Kantzow (1505-1542) writes that the »Slau(v)s and Wandals are the same thing / .../ just like the Germans are called differently - Germani, Teuthones, Alemanni.«: Original text: »Dan Slaui und Wandali ist ein Dinck / .../ gleich wie die Teutzschen werden oft on Unterschied geheissen Germani, Teuthones, Alemanni.«[22] 
Christophorum Entzelt von Saluelt (16. century) records ancient populousness of the lands east from the Elbe (Laba) river with Wends. At the same time he equates Veneti and Sclavenes.[23]
Sebastian Münster, cartographer (16th century), mentions a once mighty nation on the East sea (Ostsee) named Vandals or Wends. He also reports on Wandals who settled regions in eastern Germany, where inhabitants are called Sclavs or Wends. Original text: »Mecklenburg-Pommern-Preussen: jtem Brandenburg und was dem Polenland zugelegen, alles Wandali geheißen und ihre Einwohner haben auch Sclaven oder Wenden geheißen.«[24]
Antol Vramec, chronicler (16th century), writes in his chronicle for the year 928 the following: The Heneti, who name themselves Sloveni, were at that time knocked down in Germany.[25]
Adam Bohorič, linguist (16th century), links Heneti, Vene(d)ti, Vinds, Vandals and Slavs together as a single nation.[26]
Mavro Orbin (16th century) numbers Veneti, Vends, Vandals, Illyrians, Sarmatians ... among Slavs.[27]
The Chronicle of Brandenburg (16. century) emphasizes the mighty predecessors of Wends, the Vandals, who sacked Rome and Carthage, and mentions their king Genserich as the king of Vandals.[28]
Johann Weichard Baron von Valvasor, historian, geographer (1689), wrote: »Wends and Sclavenes are one folk, Wandals and Wends one and the same nation.« (»Wenden und Sclaven seynd ein Volk, Wandalen und Wenden einerley Nation.[29]
V. N. Tatiščev, ethnographer (17th -18th century), classifies the Heneti as Slavs, as well as the Vandalic or Vendenic state as the first known Slavic state.[30]
A. L. Schlözer, historian (18th century), defended his thesis about Slavs originating from Illyrians and the Veneti.[31]
Vasilij Trediakovski (18th century) classifies Dalmatians, Serbians, Bulgarians ... among Vandals.[32]
Davorin Trstenjak (19th century) wrote about the ancient Adriatic Veneti, who belonged to a Vindish-Slavic family. He accented their affinity with the Aremoric (Brittany) and Baltic Veneti.[33]
In Helmolts Weltgeschichte (end of the 19th century) it is indicated, that the Veneti, Wends and Winds were actually ancestors of Slovenes, and that they used to settle the old roman provinces Vindelitia, Raetia, Noricum, Pannonia.[34]

 

THE CONCLUSION
So, we can ascertain that there is plenty of historical evidence about the Veneti. Many authors connect these testimonials consistently. Of course, we shouldn't forget that there is no careful listing of these testimonials, since it was usually foreign and amateur chroniclers who were in charge of writing. Although perfection should not be expected from these authors, their reports seem to give us enough information to estimate the approximate settling area of the Veneti. This is also illustrated in the map of the historical mentions of the Veneti (from the 9th century B. C. until the 9th century C. E.). The illustration does not try to show an ethnically clean territory, but only serves as a tool for discovering several unexplained cultural or linguistic similarities between European nations!

Veneti map

Historical mentionings of the Veneti

Veneti 1000 B. C. E.

Veneti around 1000 B. C.

TO CONSIDER

It is therefore a fact that Veneti existed as one of the major ancient European settlers. And it is not difficult to notice that many historians and chroniclers equalized the Veneti with Slavs. But were the Veneti really the ancestors of Slavs or Slovenes? The answer will follow soon in the article, entitled "Veneti, where are they gone".



[1] Iliad, 851.

[2] Herodotus, History vol. 7 / G B Pellegrini, A L Prosdocimi, La lingua venetica, Padova 1967, V, 9.

[3] Polibios, Obča zgodovina, Državna založba Slovenije, Ljubljana 1964, str. 88; p. 92.

[4] On the Martialling of the Trojan Forces.

[5] Strabon, Geografija.

[6] De Bello Gallico.

[7] Titus Livius, History of Rome, Loeb Classic Library, William Heinemann, London, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1933 / Titi Livi, Ab Vrbe condita, liber I, http://www.thelatinlibrary.com/liv.html.

[8] Historia naturalis, Liber IV: 96-97.

[9] Cornelius Tacitus, De origine et situ Germaorum liber (Germania), 64.

[10] Ptolemej, De Geographia, III 5. 21.

[11] The Works of Emperor Julian, Engl. transl. Wilmer Cave Wright, I. vol., Loeb Classical Library, William Heinemann , Cambridge, Mass., Harvard University Press, 1954, The Heroic Deeds of Constantius, pp. 190- 193.

[12] Iordanes, De origine actibusce Getarum (Getica), Roma 1986, str 43 (XXIII poglavje); S Rutar, Kako važnost ima "Jordanis" za slovensko zgodovinopisje, Letopis Matice slovenske, Ljubljana 1880, p. 86.

[13] J. Bobbiensis, Vitae s. Columbani.

[14] Fredegar Scholasticus, Historia Francorum, I, 48.

[15] Adamus Bremensis, Gesta Hammaburgensis ecclesiae pontificum (et Scholast), 11. century, II, 18.

[16] Helmoldi presbyteri Bozoviensis, Chronica Sclavorum et Venedorum, 1171, p. 2, 14.

[17] W. Kadłubek, Mistrza Wincentego Kronika Polska, Warszawa 1974.

[18] Heimskringla or The Chronicle of the Kings of Norway, The Ynglinga Saga, or The Story of the Yngling Family from Odin to Halfdan the Black, Snorri Sturluson c. 1179 - 1241, Online Medieval and Classical Library Release #15b, http://sunsite.berkeley.edu/OMACL/Heimskringla/.

[19] Miersuae Chronicon, Monumenta Poloniae Historica II, 1872.

[20] Albertus Crantzius, Vandalia, lat. Hamburg 1519.

[21] M Bielski, Kronika Polska.

[22] Thomas Kantzow, Chronik von Pommern in Niederdeutscher Mundart (orig. 1535), Dr. Martin Sändig oHG., 1973; ISBN 3-500-28260-1.

[23] Entzelt von Salfeld, Chronicon der Alten Mark, Magdeburg 1579.

[24] S. Münster, Cosmographiae Universalis, Basileae 1572.

[25] A. Vramec, Kronika, Ljubljana 1578.

[26] A. Bohorič, Zimske urice / Arcticae horulae, Vitenberg, 1584.

[27] M. Orbini, Il Regno degli Slavi /Kraljestvo Slovanov, naslov "Historiografska knjiga o izvoru imena Slave in o razširitvi slovanskega naroda in njegovih carjev ter vladarjev z mnogimi imeni in z mnogimi carstvi, kraljestvi in provincami", 1722.

[28] Angelus, Chronik der Mark Brandenburg, 1598.

[29] J. V. Valvasor, Slava Vojvodine Kranjske / Die Ehre des Herzogthums Crain, Nürnberg 1689.

[30] V. N. Tatiščev, Slovani in Rusija, str. 21 / Собрание сочинений. Т.1. История Российская. М. 1994, частъ 1. См. также фрагментъі в сборнике "Славяне и Русъ" p. 16-23.

[31] Х. А Шлецер, О происхождении словен вообще и в особенности словен российских, М. 1810.

[32] B. Тредиаковский, РИ, I-XVI - Римская история ... сочиненная г. Ролленем ... а с Французского переведенная тщанием и трудами В. Тредиаковского ... Т. I - XVI. СПб., 1761-1767.

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